Metabolic adaptation to changing dietary conditions is critical to maintain homeostasis of the internal milieu. In metazoans, this adaptation is achieved by a combination of tissue-autonomous metabolic adjustments and endocrine signals that coordinate the mobilization, turnover, and storage of nutrients across tissues. To understand metabolic adaptation comprehensively, detailed insight into these tissue interactions is necessary. Here we characterize the tissue-specific response to fasting in adult flies and identify an endocrine interaction between the fat body and liver-like oenocytes that regulates the mobilization of lipid stores. Using tissue-specific expression profiling, we confirm that oenocytes in adult flies play a central role in the metabolic adaptation to fasting. Furthermore, we find that fat body-derived Drosophila insulin-like peptide 6 (dILP6) induces lipid uptake in oenocytes, promoting lipid turnover during fasting and increasing starvation tolerance of the animal. Selective activation of insulin/IGF signaling in oenocytes by a fat body-derived peptide represents a previously unidentified regulatory principle in the control of metabolic adaptation and starvation tolerance.