Pattern formation during epithelial development requires the coordination of multiple signaling pathways. Here, we investigate the functions of an ovary-enriched miRNA, miR-318, in epithelial development during Drosophila oogenesis. mir-318 maternal loss-of-function mutants were female-sterile and laid eggs with abnormal morphology. Removal of mir-318 disrupted the dorsal-anterior follicle cell patterning, resulting in abnormal dorsal appendages. mir-318 mutant females also produced thin and fragile eggshells due to impaired chorion gene amplification. We provide evidence that the ecdysone signaling pathway activates expression of miR-318 and that miR-318 cooperates with Tramtrack69 to control the switch from endocycling to chorion gene amplification during differentiation of the follicular epithelium. The multiple functions of miR-318 in oogenesis illustrate the importance of miRNAs in maintaining cell fate and in promoting the developmental transition in the female follicular epithelium.