The NF-κB pathway is a phylogenetically conserved signaling pathway with a central role in inflammatory and immune responses. Here we demonstrate that a cochaperone protein, Droj2/DNAJA3, is involved in the activation of canonical NF-κB signaling in flies and in human cultured cells. Overexpression of Droj2 induced the expression of an antimicrobial peptide in Drosophila. Conversely, Droj2 knockdown resulted in reduced expression of antimicrobial peptides and higher susceptibility to Gram-negative bacterial infection in flies. Similarly, Toll-like receptor-stimulated IκB phosphorylation and NF-κB activation were suppressed by DNAJA3 knockdown in HEK293 cells. IκB kinase overexpression-induced NF-κB phosphorylation was also compromised in DNAJA3 knockdown cells. Our study reveals a novel conserved regulator of the NF-κB pathway acting at the level of IκB phosphorylation.