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Citation
Sun, W., Lee, S., Huang, X., Liu, S., Inayathullah, M., Kim, K.M., Tang, H., Ashford, J.W., Rajadas, J. (2016). Attenuation of synaptic toxicity and MARK4/PAR1-mediated Tau phosphorylation by methylene blue for Alzheimer's disease treatment.  Sci. Rep. 6(): 34784.
FlyBase ID
FBrf0233676
Publication Type
Research paper
Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Critical components of the two AD pathological pathways, Aβ-amyloidosis and Tauopathy, have been considered as therapeutic targets. Among them, much effort is focused on aberrant Tau phosphorylation and targeting Tau-phosphorylating kinases. Methylene blue (MB), a phenothiazine dye that crosses the blood-brain barrier, has been shown to hit multiple molecular targets involved in AD and have beneficial effects in clinical studies. Here we present evidence that microtubule affinity-regulating kinase (MARK4) is a novel target of MB. MB partially rescued the synaptic toxicity in Drosophila larva overexpressing PAR1 (MARK analog). In 293T culture, MB decreased MARK4-mediated Tau phosphorylation in a dose dependent manner. Further studies revealed a two-fold mechanism by MB including down-regulation of MARK4 protein level through ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and inhibition of MARK4 kinase activity in vitro. This study highlights the importance of MARK4 as a viable target for Tauopathy and provides fresh insight into the complex mechanism used by MB to treat AD.

PubMed ID
PubMed Central ID
PMC5052533 (PMC) (EuropePMC)
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    Language of Publication
    English
    Additional Languages of Abstract
    Parent Publication
    Publication Type
    Journal
    Abbreviation
    Sci. Rep.
    Title
    Scientific reports
    ISBN/ISSN
    2045-2322
    Data From Reference
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    Genes (3)
    Transgenic Constructs (3)