Microbial communities are known to significantly affect various fitness components and survival of their insect hosts, including Drosophila. The composition of symbiotic microbiota has been shown to change with the host's aging. It is unclear whether these changes are caused by the aging process or, vice versa, they affect the host's aging and longevity. Recent findings indicate that fitness and lifespan of Drosophila are affected by endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia. These effects, however, are inconsistent and have been reported both to extend and shorten longevity. The main molecular pathways underlying the lifespan-modulating effects of Wolbachia remain unclear, however insulin/insulin-like growth factor, immune deficiency, ecdysteroid synthesis and signaling and c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathways as well as heat shock protein synthesis and autophagy have been proposed to play a role. Here we revise the current evidence that elucidates the impact of Wolbachia endosymbionts on the aging processes in Drosophila.