Previously, we have shown that flies under-expressing the two mitochondrial peroxiredoxins (Prxs), dPrx3 and dPrx5, display increases in tissue-specific apoptosis and dramatically shortened life span, associated with a redox crisis, manifested as changes in GSH:GSSG and accumulation of protein mixed disulfides. To identify specific pathways responsible for the observed biological effects, we performed a transcriptome analysis. Functional clustering revealed a prominent group enriched for immunity-related genes, including a considerable number of NF-kB-dependent antimicrobial peptides (AMP) that are up-regulated in the Prx double mutant. Using qRT-PCR analysis we determined that the age-dependent changes in AMP levels in mutant flies were similar to those observed in controls when scaled to percentage of life span. To further clarify the role of Prx-dependent mitochondrial signaling, we expressed different forms of dPrx5, which unlike the uniquely mitochondrial dPrx3 is found in multiple subcellular compartments, including mitochondrion, nucleus and cytosol. Ectopic expression of dPrx5 in mitochondria but not nucleus or cytosol partially extended longevity under normal or oxidative stress conditions while complete restoration of life span occurred when all three forms of dPrx5 were expressed from the wild type dPrx5 transgene. When dPrx5 was expressed in mitochondria or in all three compartments, it substantially delayed the development of hyperactive immunity while expression of cytosolic or nuclear forms had no effect on the immune phenotype. The data suggest a critical role of mitochondria in development of chronic activation of the immune response triggered by impaired redox control.