N-Acetylglucosamine β-O-linked to nucleocytoplasmic proteins (O-GlcNAc) is implicated in the regulation of gene expression in organisms, from humans to Drosophila melanogaster. Within Drosophila, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is one of the Polycomb group proteins (PcGs) that act through Polycomb group response elements (PREs) to silence homeotic (HOX) and other PcG target genes. Using Drosophila, we identify new O-GlcNAcylated PcG proteins and develop an antibody-free metabolic feeding approach to chemoselectively map genomic loci enriched in O-GlcNAc using next-generation sequencing. We find that O-GlcNAc is distributed to specific genomic loci both in cells and in vivo. Many of these loci overlap with PREs, but O-GlcNAc is also present at other loci lacking PREs. Loss of OGT leads to altered gene expression not only at loci containing PREs but also at loci lacking PREs, including several heterochromatic genes. These data suggest that O-GlcNAc acts through multiple mechanisms to regulate gene expression in Drosophila.