SUMOylation is a reversible post-translational protein modification that affects the intracellular localization, stability, activity, and interactions of its protein targets. The SUMOylation pathway influences several nuclear and cytoplasmic processes. The expression of many genes, in particular those involved in development is finely tuned in space and time by several groups of proteins. There is growing evidence that transcriptional regulation mechanisms involve direct SUMOylation of transcriptional-related proteins such as initiation and elongation factors, and subunits of chromatin modifier and remodeling complexes originally described as members of the trithorax and Polycomb groups in Drosophila. Therefore, it is being unveiled that SUMOylation has a role in both, gene silencing and gene activation mechanisms. The goal of this review is to discuss the information on how SUMO modification in components of these multi-subunit complexes may have an effect in genome architecture and function and, therefore, in the regulation of gene expression in time and space.