Membrane protein trafficking occurs throughout the lifetime of neurons and includes the initial protein synthesis and anterograde transport to the plasma membrane as well as internalization, degradation, and recycling of plasma membrane proteins. Defects in protein trafficking can result in neuronal degeneration and underlie blinding diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa as well as other neuronal disorders. Drosophila photoreceptor cells have emerged as a model system for identifying the components and mechanisms involved in membrane protein trafficking in neurons. Here we summarize the current knowledge about trafficking of three Drosophila phototransduction proteins, the visual pigment rhodopsin and the two light-activated ion channels TRP (transient receptor potential) and TRPL (TRP-like). Despite some common requirements shared by rhodopsin and TRP, details in the trafficking of these proteins differ considerably, suggesting the existence of several trafficking pathways for these photoreceptor proteins.