Carbohydrate metabolism is essential for cellular energy balance as well as for the biosynthesis of new cellular building blocks. As animal nutrient intake displays temporal fluctuations and each cell type within the animal possesses specific metabolic needs, elaborate regulatory systems are needed to coordinate carbohydrate metabolism in time and space. Carbohydrate metabolism is regulated locally through gene regulatory networks and signaling pathways, which receive inputs from nutrient sensors as well as other pathways, such as developmental signals. Superimposed on cell-intrinsic control, hormonal signaling mediates intertissue information to maintain organismal homeostasis. Misregulation of carbohydrate metabolism is causative for many human diseases, such as diabetes and cancer. Recent work in Drosophila melanogaster has uncovered new regulators of carbohydrate metabolism and introduced novel physiological roles for previously known pathways. Moreover, genetically tractable Drosophila models to study carbohydrate metabolism-related human diseases have provided new insight into the mechanisms of pathogenesis. Due to the high degree of conservation of relevant regulatory pathways, as well as vast possibilities for the analysis of gene-nutrient interactions and tissue-specific gene function, Drosophila is emerging as an important model system for research on carbohydrate metabolism.