Despite their emergence as an important class of noncoding RNAs involved in cancer cell transformation, invasion, and migration, the precise role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in tumorigenesis remains elusive. To gain insights into how miRNAs contribute to primary tumor formation, we conducted an RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of Drosophila wing disc epithelial tumors induced by knockdown of a neoplastic tumor-suppressor gene (nTSG) lethal giant larvae (lgl), combined with overexpression of an active form of oncogene Ras (RasV12 ), and identified 51 mature miRNAs that changed significantly in tumorous discs. Followed by in vivo tumor enhancer and suppressor screens in sensitized genetic backgrounds, we identified 10 tumor-enhancing (TE) miRNAs and 11 tumor-suppressing (TS) miRNAs that contributed to the nTSG defect-induced tumorigenesis. Among these, four TE and three TS miRNAs have human homologs. From this study, we also identified 29 miRNAs that individually had no obvious role in enhancing or alleviating tumorigenesis despite their changed expression levels in nTSG tumors. This systematic analysis, which includes both RNA-Seq and in vivo functional studies, helps to categorize miRNAs into different groups based on their expression profile and functional relevance in epithelial tumorigenesis, whereas the evolutionarily conserved TE and TS miRNAs provide potential therapeutic targets for epithelial tumor treatment.