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Pałka, M., Tomczak, A., Grabowska, K., Machowska, M., Piekarowicz, K., Rzepecka, D., Rzepecki, R. (2018). Laminopathies: what can humans learn from fruit flies.  Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. 23(): 32.
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Lamin proteins are type V intermediate filament proteins (IFs) located inside the cell nucleus. They are evolutionarily conserved and have similar domain organization and properties to cytoplasmic IFs. Lamins provide a skeletal network for chromatin, the nuclear envelope, nuclear pore complexes and the entire nucleus. They are also responsible for proper connections between the karyoskeleton and structural elements in the cytoplasm: actin and the microtubule and cytoplasmic IF networks. Lamins affect transcription and splicing either directly or indirectly. Translocation of active genes into the close proximity of nuclear lamina is thought to result in their transcriptional silencing. Mutations in genes coding for lamins and interacting proteins in humans result in various genetic disorders, called laminopathies. Human genes coding for A-type lamin (LMNA) are the most frequently mutated. The resulting phenotypes include muscle, cardiac, neuronal, lipodystrophic and metabolic pathologies, early aging phenotypes, and combined complex phenotypes. The Drosophila melanogaster genome codes for lamin B-type (lamin Dm), lamin A-type (lamin C), and for LEM-domain proteins, BAF, LINC-complex proteins and all typical nuclear proteins. The fruit fly system is simpler than the vertebrate one since in flies there is only single lamin B-type and single lamin A-type protein, as opposed to the complex system of B- and A-type lamins in Danio, Xenopus and Mus musculus. This offers a unique opportunity to study laminopathies. Applying genetic tools based on Gal4 and in vitro nuclear assembly system to the fruit fly model may successfully advance knowledge of laminopathies. Here, we review studies of the laminopathies in the fly model system.

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PMC6034310 (PMC) (EuropePMC)
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    Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett.
    Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
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