The gut has a central role in digestion and nutrient absorption, but it also serves in defending against pathogens, engages in mutually beneficial interactions with commensals, and is a major source of endocrine signals. Gut homeostasis is necessary for organismal health and changes to the gut are associated with conditions like obesity and diabetes and inflammatory illnesses like Crohn's disease. We report that peroxisomes, organelles involved in lipid metabolism and redox balance, are required to maintain gut epithelium homeostasis and renewal in Drosophila and for survival and development of the organism. Dysfunctional peroxisomes in gut epithelial cells activate Tor kinase-dependent autophagy that increases cell death and epithelial instability, which ultimately alter the composition of the intestinal microbiota, compromise immune pathways in the gut in response to infection, and affect organismal survival. Peroxisomes in the gut effectively function as hubs that coordinate responses from stress, metabolic, and immune signaling pathways to maintain enteric health and the functionality of the gut-microbe interface.