Chemical signals are one means by which many insect species communicate. Differences in the combination of surface chemicals called cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) can influence mating behavior and affect reproductive isolation between species. Genes influencing three CHC compounds have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the genetic basis of other CHC compounds, whether these genes affect species differences in CHCs, and the genes' resulting effect on interspecies mating, remains unknown. We used fine-scale deficiency mapping of the third chromosome to identify 43 genomic regions that influence production of CHCs in both D. melanogaster and Drosophila simulans females. We identified an additional 23 small genomic regions that affect interspecies divergence in CHCs between females of these two species, one of which spans two genes known to influence the production of multiple CHCs within D. melanogaster. By testing these genes individually, we determined that desat1 also affects interspecific divergence in one CHC compound, while desat2 has no effect on interspecific divergence. Thus, some but not all genes affecting intraspecific amounts of CHCs also affect interspecific divergence, but not all genes or all CHCs. Lastly, we find no evidence of a relationship between the CHC profile and female attractiveness or receptivity towards D. melanogaster males.