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Lushchak, O.V., Karaman, H.S., Kozeretska, I.A., Koliada, A.K., Zabuga, O.G., Pisaruk, A.V., Koshel, N.M., Mechova, L.V., Inomistova, M.V., Khranovska, N.M., Vaiserman, A.M. (2019). Larval crowding results in hormesis-like effects on longevity in Drosophila: timing of eclosion as a model.  Biogerontology 20(2): 191--201.
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There is increasing evidence that stress during development can affect adult-life health status and longevity. In the present study, we examined life span (LS), fly weight, fecundity and expression levels of longevity-associated genes (Hsp70, InR, dSir2, dTOR and dFOXO) in adult Drosophila melanogaster flies reared in normal <up>low density (LD), ~ 300-400 eggs per jar</up> or crowded <up>high density (HD), more than 3000 eggs per jar</up> conditions by using the order (day) of emergence as an index of the developmental duration (HD1-5 groups). Developmental time showed a significant trend to increase while weight showed a significant trend to decrease with increasing the timing of emergence. In both males and females eclosed during first 2 days in HD conditions (HD1 and HD2 groups), both mean and maximum LSs were significantly increased in comparison to LD group. In males, mean LS was increased by 24.0% and 23.5% in HD1 and HD2 groups, respectively. In females, corresponding increments in mean LS were 23.8% (HD1 group) and 29.3% (HD2 group). In HD groups, a strong negative association with developmental time has been found for both male and female mean and male maximum LSs; no association with growth rate was observed for female maximum LS. The female reproductive activity (fecundity) tended to decrease with subsequent days of eclosion. In HD groups, the levels of expression of all studied longevity-associated genes tended to increase with the timing of eclosion in males; no differences were observed in females. On the basis of findings obtained, it can be assumed that the development in conditions of larval overpopulation (if not too extended) could trigger hormetic response thereby extending the longevity. Further studies are, however, needed to confirm this assumption.

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