Germline stem cells (GSCs) are critical for the generation of sperms and eggs in most animals including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. It is well known that self-renewal and differentiation of female D. melanogaster GSCs are regulated by local niche signals. However, little is known about whether and how the GSC number is regulated by paracrine signals. In the last decade, however, multiple humoral factors, including insulin and ecdysteroids, have been recognized as key regulators of female D. melanogaster GSCs. This review paper summarizes the role of humoral factors in female D. melanogaster GSC proliferation and maintenance in response to internal and external conditions, such as nutrients, mating stimuli, and aging.