Puf family proteins are translational regulators essential to a wide range of biological processes, including cell fate specification, stem cell self-renewal, and neural function. Yet, despite being associated with hundreds of RNAs, the underlying mechanisms of Puf target specification remain to be fully elucidated. In Drosophila, Pumilio - a sole Puf family protein - is known to collaborate with cofactors Nanos (Nos) and Brain Tumor (Brat); however, their roles in target specification are not clearly defined. Here, we identify Bag-of-marbles (Bam) as a new Pum cofactor in repression of Mothers against dpp (mad) mRNAs, for which Nos is known to be dispensable. Notably, our data show that Nos (but not Bam) was required for Pum association with hunchback (hb) mRNAs, a well-known target of Pum and Nos. In contrast, Bam (but not Nos) was required for Pum association with mad mRNAs. These findings show for the first time that Pum target specificity is determined not independently but in collaboration with cofactors.