Whole exome analyses have identified a number of genes associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ASD-related syndromes. These genes encode key regulators of synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity, cytoskeleton dynamics, protein synthesis and degradation, chromatin remodeling, transcription, and lipid homeostasis. Furthermore, in silico studies suggest complex regulatory networks among these genes. Drosophila is a useful genetic model system for studies of ASD and ASD-related syndromes to clarify the in vivo roles of ASD-associated genes and the complex gene regulatory networks operating in the pathogenesis of ASD and ASD-related syndromes. In this review, we discuss what we have learned from studies with vertebrate models, mostly mouse models. We then highlight studies with Drosophila models. We also discuss future developments in the related field.