There is increasing interest in the potential role of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in changing body composition to lower body fat with increased lean mass. In this study, we examined the sex-dependent effect of EGCG on body composition, locomotion, feeding behaviour, sugar levels, and transcription levels of key regulators in lipid, carbohydrate, and energy metabolisms in Drosophila melanogaster. EGCG had no effects on body weights in both females and males, but decreased fat accumulation in females compared to the control, accompanied by a reduction in food intake. EGCG treatments increased lean mass and locomotor activity, and downregulated transcription levels of brummer (bmm), adipokinetic hormone (akh), and Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (dilp2), and upregulated spargel (srl) in males. In addition, EGCG decreased sugar levels in both females and males. In conclusion, EGCG promotes lean phenotype in D. melanogaster via sex-specific metabolic regulations.