Neurexins (Nrxns) and LAR-RPTPs (leukocyte common antigen-related protein tyrosine phosphatases) are presynaptic adhesion proteins responsible for organizing presynaptic machineries through interactions with nonoverlapping extracellular ligands. Here, we report that two members of the LAR-RPTP family, PTPσ and PTPδ, are required for the presynaptogenic activity of Nrxns. Intriguingly, Nrxn1 and PTPσ require distinct sets of intracellular proteins for the assembly of specific presynaptic terminals. In addition, Nrxn1α showed robust heparan sulfate (HS)-dependent, high-affinity interactions with Ig domains of PTPσ that were regulated by the splicing status of PTPσ. Furthermore, Nrxn1α WT, but not a Nrxn1α mutant lacking HS moieties (Nrxn1α ΔHS), inhibited postsynapse-inducing activity of PTPσ at excitatory, but not inhibitory, synapses. Similarly, cis expression of Nrxn1α WT, but not Nrxn1α ΔHS, suppressed the PTPσ-mediated maintenance of excitatory postsynaptic specializations in mouse cultured hippocampal neurons. Lastly, genetics analyses using male or female Drosophila Dlar and Dnrx mutant larvae identified epistatic interactions that control synapse formation and synaptic transmission at neuromuscular junctions. Our results suggest a novel synaptogenesis model whereby different presynaptic adhesion molecules combine with distinct regulatory codes to orchestrate specific synaptic adhesion pathways.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We provide evidence supporting the physical interactions of neurexins with leukocyte common-antigen related receptor tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs). The availability of heparan sulfates and alternative splicing of LAR-RPTPs regulate the binding affinity of these interactions. A set of intracellular presynaptic proteins is involved in common for Nrxn- and LAR-RPTP-mediated presynaptic assembly. PTPσ triggers glutamatergic and GABAergic postsynaptic differentiation in an alternative splicing-dependent manner, whereas Nrxn1α induces GABAergic postsynaptic differentiation in an alternative splicing-independent manner. Strikingly, Nrxn1α inhibits the glutamatergic postsynapse-inducing activity of PTPσ, suggesting that PTPσ and Nrxn1α might control recruitment of a different pool of postsynaptic machinery. Drosophila orthologs of Nrxns and LAR-RPTPs mediate epistatic interactions in controlling synapse structure and strength at neuromuscular junctions, underscoring the physiological significance in vivo.