Microbial factors influence homeostatic and oncogenic growth in the intestinal epithelium. However, we know little about immediate effects of commensal bacteria on stem cell division programs. In this study, we examined the effects of commensal Lactobacillus species on homeostatic and tumorigenic stem cell proliferation in the female Drosophila intestine. We identified Lactobacillus brevis as a potent stimulator of stem cell divisions. In a wild-type midgut, L.brevis activates growth regulatory pathways that drive stem cell divisions. In a Notch-deficient background, L.brevis-mediated proliferation causes rapid expansion of mutant progenitors, leading to accumulation of large, multi-layered tumors throughout the midgut. Mechanistically, we showed that L.brevis disrupts expression and subcellular distribution of progenitor cell integrins, supporting symmetric divisions that expand intestinal stem cell populations. Collectively, our data emphasize the impact of commensal microbes on division and maintenance of the intestinal progenitor compartment.