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Citation
Kvon, E.Z., Waymack, R., Gad, M., Wunderlich, Z. (2021). Enhancer redundancy in development and disease.  Nat. Rev. Genet. 22(5): 324--336.
FlyBase ID
FBrf0249533
Publication Type
Review
Abstract

Shadow enhancers are seemingly redundant transcriptional cis-regulatory elements that regulate the same gene and drive overlapping expression patterns. Recent studies have shown that shadow enhancers are remarkably abundant and control most developmental gene expression in both invertebrates and vertebrates, including mammals. Shadow enhancers might provide an important mechanism for buffering gene expression against mutations in non-coding regulatory regions of genes implicated in human disease. Technological advances in genome editing and live imaging have shed light on how shadow enhancers establish precise gene expression patterns and confer phenotypic robustness. Shadow enhancers can interact in complex ways and may also help to drive the formation of transcriptional hubs within the nucleus. Despite their apparent redundancy, the prevalence and evolutionary conservation of shadow enhancers underscore their key role in emerging metazoan gene regulatory networks.

PubMed ID
PubMed Central ID
PMC8068586 (PMC) (EuropePMC)
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Secondary IDs
    Language of Publication
    English
    Additional Languages of Abstract
    Parent Publication
    Publication Type
    Journal
    Abbreviation
    Nat. Rev. Genet.
    Title
    Nature Reviews. Genetics
    Publication Year
    2000-
    ISBN/ISSN
    1471-0056 1471-0064
    Data From Reference