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General Information
D. melanogaster
Feature type
FlyBase ID
Sequences and Components
Complete element (bp)
Terminal repeat (bp)

481 or 571 (FBrf0036946)

Sequence Accessions
Sequence Ontology (SO)
Insertions and Copy Number
Copy number and comments

31 in euchromatin of Release 3 genome annotation, of which 24 are full length.

TE copies retrieved from release 5.1 of the D. melanogaster genome.:36

Target Site Duplication
Curated drosophilid orthologs

Expression is enriched in embryonic gonads.

The expression of 412 varies greatly between populations.

Transposable elements can be used to reveal cross-over events.

No transposition was detected in progeny after heat shock of parents.

Correlations between the rate of transposition and TE copy number are determined for 412 and roo and are found to be zero.

Study of TE distribution (P-element, hobo, I-element, copia, mdg1, mdg3, 412, 297 and roo) along chromosome arms shows no global tendency for the TE site occupancy frequency to negatively follow the recombination rate, except for the 3L arm.

Functional site motifs are distributed within the 412 element.

Analysis of motifs of functional sites reveals these motifs ensure the basic molecular functions of 412, expression of its open reading frame, transcription, induction of transposition and modification of adjacent genes and polygenes.

412 is expressed in a cell-specific manner during embryogenesis. At stage 11 transcripts are present in bilateral clusters of cells within the mesoderm. The posterior clusters of cells become associated with the gonads at stage 13. Results demonstrate development of the visceral muscle or fat body do not affect the expression of 412 during embryogenesis.

Spontaneous insertions and excisions of mdg1, copia, 412 and roo have been monitored over 65 generations of mass mating. Excisions are outnumbered by insertions. Their contribution to variation for transposable element location is not great.

The distribution of transposable elements in D.simulans is similar to that found in D.melanogaster, though total copy number is lower.

Estimating the genomic numbers of transposable elements demonstrates many families of element are over-represented in heterochromatin.

The spatial and temporal expression patterns of fifteen families of retrotransposons during embryogenesis suggest that all families carry cis-acting elements that control their spatial and temporal expression patterns.

The copia and 412 transposable elements increase in copy number in aged adult tissue due to the activation of reverse transcriptase.

Element copy numbers on inversion and standard chromosomes has been determined. The copy number is significantly higher within low frequency inversions than within the corresponding standard chromosome regions.

Polymorphism of transposable elements in inbred lines has been examined: P-element, gypsy, jockey, I-element, mdg1, 412, mdg3 and 297 sites are largely stable, whereas roo and copia sites are polymorphic.

Expression of the 412 element provides a useful early marker for the development of the gonadal mesoderm. This high level of expression does not depend on contact with germ cells, but does depend on abd-A and Abd-B.

During the course of experiments with genetically unstable MS strains gypsy elements were observed to transpose whereas mdg1 and 412 sites in the X chromosome were unchanged.

One substock of inbred lines shows considerable heterogeneity of insertion sites of copia (frequency of insertions is 12% per haploid genome per generation) whereas mdg1, 412, mdg3, gypsy, 297 and HMS-Beagle were stable in all stocks examined.

Increase in transposition of 412 by heavy heat shock treatment is statistically significant.

Multiple transpositions of copia-like 412 occur in the next generation after heat shock treatment.

Stability of 11 transposable element families compared by Southern blotting among individuals of lines that had been subjected to 30 generations of sister sib matings. 412, roo, blood, 297, 1731 and G-element all appear stable, whereas copia, hobo, I-element, gypsy and jockey elements show instability.

the 5' LTR contains an additional 33bp of which 29 are a direct repeat of the LTR sequence, there is a 3bp insertion between ft and the 5' LTR, 11bp of ft DNA at site of insertion is lost.

The mdg1 element shows considerable homology with the 412 element.

Transposition rates of mobile elements in lines AW and JH, in which spontaneous mutations have accumulated for about 400 generations, are studied. 412 and 17.6 elements rate of transposition is very low, I-element and hobo insertions occur much more frequently.

The distribution of a number of transposable elements, including 412 elements, in a D.melanogaster laboratory strain with a high frequency of spontaneous mutations and its derivatives, has been studied.

The genomic distribution of transposable elements in somatic tissues and during development is homogeneous.

Other Information
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 29 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (17)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
(de Oliveira et al., 2021, Eastwood et al., 2021, Huang et al., 2021, Cavaliere et al., 2020, Lepesant et al., 2020, Mérel et al., 2020, Onishi et al., 2020, Saint-Leandre et al., 2020, Zhao et al., 2019, Barckmann et al., 2018, Lee et al., 2018, Théron et al., 2018, Nefedova and Kim, 2017, Ku et al., 2016, Levine et al., 2016, Peng et al., 2016, Wang et al., 2016, Bozzetti et al., 2015, Kofler et al., 2015, Molla-Herman et al., 2015, Rahman et al., 2015, Senti et al., 2015, Zhang et al., 2015, Basquin et al., 2014, Blumenstiel et al., 2014, Huang et al., 2014, Minakhina et al., 2014, Mirkovic-Hösle and Förstemann, 2014, Patil et al., 2014, Satyaki et al., 2014, Sytnikova et al., 2014, Cridland et al., 2013, Czech et al., 2013, Dönertas et al., 2013, Muerdter et al., 2013, Ohtani et al., 2013, Vagin et al., 2013, Zanni et al., 2013, Anand and Kai, 2012, Kofler et al., 2012, Linheiro and Bergman, 2012, Sano et al., 2012, Sienski et al., 2012, Tsigkari et al., 2012, Blauth et al., 2011, Klenov et al., 2011, Lerat et al., 2011, Liu et al., 2011, Nefedova et al., 2011, Pane et al., 2011, Petrov et al., 2011, Wang and Elgin, 2011, Yu et al., 2011, Nayak et al., 2010, Bartolomé et al., 2009, Deloger et al., 2009, Hamilton et al., 2009, Henikoff et al., 2009, Klattenhoff et al., 2009, Li et al., 2009, Malone et al., 2009, Witsell et al., 2009, Brennecke et al., 2008, Chung et al., 2008, Kawamura et al., 2008, Matyunina et al., 2008, Mugnier et al., 2008, Bergman and Bensasson, 2007, Brennecke et al., 2007, Gunawardane et al., 2007, Alonso-Gonzalez et al., 2006, Ganko et al., 2006, Saito et al., 2006, Shigenobu et al., 2006, Shigenobu et al., 2006, Lipatov et al., 2005, Mugnier et al., 2005, Franchini et al., 2004, Alonso-Gonzalez et al., 2003)
412 element
mdg2 element
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0062487
  • FBgn0010159
  • FBgn0000006
  • FBtp0011409
References (273)