The relationships between the modified mouth parts group, the picture wing clade, the fngus feeder group, and the virilis-repleta radiation were obtained from :
Russo, C.A.M., N. Takezaki, and M. Nei. 1995. Molecular Phylogeny and Divergence Times of Drosophilid Species. Mol. Biol. Evol. 12(3):391-404.
Last updated: 4/17/00