Akam et al., 1994, Akam, Holland, Ingram, Wray, 1994: 209--215
|Akam et al., 1994, Akam, Holland, Ingram, Wray, 1994: 209--215|
The evolving role of Hox genes in arthropods.
Comparisons between Hox genes in different arthropods suggest that the diversity of Antennapedia-class homeotic genes present in modern insects had already arisen before the divergence of insects and crustaceans, probably during the Cambrian. Hox gene duplications are therefore unlikely to have occurred concomitantly with trunk segment diversification in the lineage leading to insects. Available data suggest that domains of homeotic gene expression are also generally conserved among insects, but changes in Hox gene regulation may have played a significant role in segment diversification. Differences that have been documented alter specific aspects of Hox gene regulation within segments and correlate with alterations in segment morphology rather than overt homeotic transformations. The Drosophila Hox cluster contains several homeobox genes that are not homeotic genes--bicoid, fushi-tarazu and zen. the role of these genes during early development has been studied in some detail. It appears to be without parallel among the vertebrate Hox genes. No well conserved homologues of these genes have been found in other taxa, suggesting that they are evolving faster than the homeotic genes. Relatively divergent Antp-class genes isolated from other insects are probably homologues of fushi-tarazu, but these are almost unrecognisable outside of their homeodomains, and have accumulated approximately 10 times as many changes in their homeodomains as have homeotic genes in the same comparisons. They show conserved patterns of expression in the nervous system, but not during early development.
Genes from Reference