As in wild type, amn1 mutant males exhibit inhibition of the female contact-induced male-male aggression seen in wild type males that have previously been exposed to females.
Compared with wild-type, amn1 show a decrease in axonal branch number without affecting synaptic varicosity number or innervation length.
amn1 mutant larvae show a significant delay in response to noxious heat compared to control flies. These flies also exhibit a delay in their jump response to noxious heat of 9 seconds.
amn1 mutants make choices according to their recent experience and completely ignore the past experience in a 60-60V 1hr delay choice, similar to wild-type. No significant difference is observed between the 1hr Anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) of a single conditioning event and that followed by a second conditioning event in amn1 mutants.
The choice PI in the 60-30 V 1hr delay protocol is not significantly different from the 30 V immediate memory PI in amn1 mutants, compared to wild-type where it is significantly lower.
amn1 and amnX8/amn1 flies are able to learn to associate an odor with a sugar reward (although they have a small but significant initial performance defect), but they forget this association within 60 minutes of training.
Muscles of third instar amn1 larvae show a reduction in the L-type Ca2+ current compared to control larvae.
Mutant animals, unlike wild-type, do not show significant age-related memory impairment, 1 hour memory in aged flies was not significantly different from young mutant flies.
In amn1 homozygotes no effect is seen on the amplitude of the synchronous oscillation of intracellular calcium concentration seen in wild type Kenyon cells.
Shows defects in memory retention both immediately (initial learning) or 180 minutes (3 hour memory) after training.
Hemizygous males and homozygous females show increased sensitivity to ethanol in an inebriometer assay.
After presentation of electric shock with a first odour or with fresh air, amn1 flies show a strongly reduced avoidance of a second, different odour compared to wild-type flies.
amn1 flies kept in constant darkness have a smaller lamina volume than amn1 flies kept in constant light, as is also seen for wild-type flies.
In experiments involving 'operant' conditioning, with heat as the aversive unconditioned stimulus, amn1 exhibits a small decrement in learning per se and subsequently has no detectable memory.
It appears that short-term memory is defective in the mutant (in shock-odor tests), with long-term memory being normal.
Groups of amn1 flies exhibit apparently abnormal acquisition of learning in tests using visual cues.