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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\dl1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0002643
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Nature of the Allele
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference
Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

VA1d olfactory receptor neuron axon targeting is normal in mutant flies.

At 29[o]C, only 47% of embryos derived from heterozygous females hatch, while the remaining embryos show slight dorsalisation.

At 29[o]C, about half of the dead embryos produced by dl1/+ females exhibit detectable D/V patterning defects. The majority of embryos appear moderately dorsalised, exhibiting mildly expanded ventral denticle belts and a twisted germ band.

dl1/dl4 flies show one ectopic macrochaeta in 39% of heminota analysed at 18[o]C (this phenotype is not seen at 25[o]C).

Embryos derived from homozygous females are completely dorsalised, developing into hollow tubes of dorsal epidermis.

The mean circulating hemocyte number of dl1/Df(2L)TW119 mutants is not statistically different from that of controls.

The mean ln (natural logarithm) circulating hemocyte concentration (CHC) value of hemizygous larvae is significantly higher than that of control siblings.

The cuticles of embryos laid by homozygous females

lack ventral denticle belts, Filzkorper and a head skeleton and instead consist only of a tube of dorsal epidermis.

Embryos derived from dl1 cact7 mothers carrying either dl+mWT, dlS70A, dlS79A, dlS103A or dlS213A are strongly ventralised and do not hatch. Embryos derived from dl1 cact7 mothers carrying dlS312A are severely dorsalised. Embryos derived from dl1 cact7 mothers carrying dlS317A are lateralised.

The cuticle of homozygous dppH46 embryos consists only of ventral epidermis. This phenotype is not altered if the embryos are derived from homozygous dl1 females. Injection of brkcJa mRNA into dorsalised embryos derived from dl1 females results in the development of cuticle with ventral denticles at the site of injection.

Homozygous females produce embryos that differentiate apolar tubes of cuticle of the type normally found on the dorsal side of wild-type embryos. This phenotype is rescued if the females carry dlbcd.PB - these females produce hatching larvae that have normal dorsal-ventral pattern elements.

Embryos derived from homozygous females lack denticles and Filzkorper. Embryos derived from homozygous females show abnormal gastrulation; they do not form the ventral furrow or the posterior midgut invagination, and symmetrical "dorsal" folds develop all around the circumference of the embryo.

Single cells from N55e11 embryos transplanted into the ventral neurogenic region of host embryos derived from dl1 mothers give rise to neural cells in 91% of cases.

cact7 dl1 double mutants also exhibit melanotic tumours.

Bacterially challenged mutants exhibit a wild type Drs response. Pattern of response of CecA1 and CecA2 parallels that of Drs. Dpt and Dro remain fully inducible and pattern of expression of AttA and Def in intermediate. Infection of Tlr3/Tlrv1 mutants with A.fumigatus or E.coli causes survival rates similar to wild type.

Embryos differentiate a cuticle comprised of only the most dorsal pattern elements. Dorsal injection of sog mRNA into dl1 embryos causes differentiation of dorsolaterally derived structures not present in dl1 embryos and injection of 7-fold higher sog mRNA causes differentiation of a ring of filzkorper around the embryonic circumference. Dorsal injection of sog::Xlae\chordin mRNA into dl1 embryos causes differentiation of filzkorper.

Injection of the pll::tort4021p construct and tor::tubt4021t construct into dl1/Df(2L)TW119 and dl12/Df(2L)TW119 heterozygotes cannot induce dorsoventral pattern elements.

Heterozygous twi1 embryos from heterozygous dl1 mothers lack various amounts of mesoderm in a temperature-dependent manner. Gaps in the visceral mesoderm are correlated with gaps in the overlying midgut epithelium.

Nonmotile germ cells and defective in gonad assembly when in double mutant combination with tor.

In trans to cact gain of function alleles, this allele results in dorsalized embryos.

Salivary placodes are strongly reduced or completely absent.

The tll stripe extends around the complete circumference of the embryo.

Dorsalized phenotype facilitates removal of perivitelline fluid.

Interacts with RpII140wimp maternal effect.

Some cells behave as amnioserosa cells, these cells are expressed in the region of the embryo predicted by the refined expression pattern of zen.

Embryos derived from dl1 mothers produce only the dorsal most cuticle elements.

Homozygous females lay eggs differentiating to an essentially hollow epidermal tube. No organs are built besides the posterior midgut and a small group of nerve cells.

Gastrulation in embryos derived from homozygous females is abnormal, with the transverse folds encircling the dorsalised embryo.

dppHin embryos derived from dl1 mothers have a dorsalizing phenotype: dorsal setae covering the entire body, rudimentary posterior spiracles lacking Filzkorper and numerous ventral like setae. Individuals have an elongated and convoluted appearance.

Homozygous females produce dorsalised embryos.

The presence of the N55e11 did not affect the epidermal pattern in the thoracic and abdominal segments of hemizygotes derived from dl1/dl1 hemizygotes. The presence of ovoD1 also has no effect on the dl1 phenotype.

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Enhanced by
Suppressed by
Statement
Reference
Enhancer of
Statement
Reference
NOT Enhancer of
Statement
Reference
Suppressor of
NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

dl1 is a non-suppressor of abnormal neuroanatomy phenotype of Ank2f02001

dl1 is a non-suppressor of partially lethal - majority die | recessive phenotype of cact7

Other
Phenotype Manifest In
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference
Suppressed by
Statement
Reference

dl1 has denticle phenotype, suppressible by Difbcd.PS

dl1 has filzkorper phenotype, suppressible by Difbcd.PS

Enhancer of
Statement
Reference
Suppressor of
NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference
Other
Statement
Reference
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

Homozygous dl1 does not suppress the NMJ degeneration seen in Ank2f02001 mutant larvae.

An increased proportion of embryos maternally mutant for Dip31 and dl1/+ show D\V patterning defects compared to dl1/+ alone. Loss of paternal Dip3 has no effect on the dl1/+ phenotype.

RelE20 dl1 double mutant larvae are smaller than wild-type, and about half of the double homozygotes die before reaching adult stages.

Dif1 dl1 double mutants are small and sluggish and only 3.4% survive to adult. Unchallenged Dif1 dl1 double mutant larvae contain many bacteria and yeast in their haemolymph (as many as 105 microbes per animal), while no microbes are observed in wild-type haemolymph. In microbe-free conditions, in the presence of antibiotics, approximately 33% of Dif1 dl1 double mutants survive to adult stages, thats a 10-fold increase compared to normal conditions. Dif1 dl1 double mutants are able to mount a humoral immune response, but this does not prevent constitutive infection of these animals.

Dif1 dl1/+ + double heterozygotes exhibit approximately 5000 blood cells per υl of haemolymph, the same as in wild-type flies. In contrast, Dif1 dl1 double homozygotes exhibit a greatly reduced number of haemocytes, approximately 500 per υl - 10-fold fewer than in wild-type. Approximately 15% of Dif1 dl1 haemocytes undergo apoptosis, compared with only 2.3% in wild-type.

The few blood cells present in Dif1 dl1 mutants exhibit an abnormal morphology. In contrast to wild-type haemocytes, Dif1 dl1 blood cells are enlarged, containing intact intracellular bacteria that are not localised to vacuoles and have not been digested. When Dif1 dl1 larvae are grown on minimal medium in the presence of antibiotics, the number of haemocytes increases 3-fold, to approximately 1400 cells per υl, and the haemocytes are of normal morphology.

Dif1 dl1 animals, in which BacA\p35GMR.PH is expressed in the haemocytes, under the control of Scer\GAL4He.PZ still have microbes in the haemolymph, even though the microbial load is 100-fold lower than in Dif1 dl1 larvae. After injection with E.coli, nearly all of the BacA\p35GMR.PH expressing Dif1 dl1 larvae become flaccid and die with in a few hours. At 5 hours post infection, the few surviving animals exhibit up to 1000 times more bacteria per animal than wild-type larvae. Bacteria are engulfed by the BacA\p35GMR.PH-rescued haemocytes but are not digested, subsequently, many of the haemocytes rupture.

Ubiquitous expression of dlScer\UAS.cMa, driven by Scer\GAL4hs.PB at 25oC (without heat shock) fully rescues the lethality of Dif1 dl1 double mutants.

Ubiquitous expression of DifScer\UAS.cIa, driven by Scer\GAL4hs.PB at 25oC (without heat shock) fully rescues the lethality of Dif1 dl1 double mutants.

Expression of dlScer\UAS.cMa in circulating haemocytes, lymph glands, and epidermis, but not in the fat body, under the control of Scer\GAL4e33C, restores normal haemocyte numbers in Dif1 dl1 double mutants. The rescued blood cells are indistinguishable in morphology from wild-type uninfected haemocytes. In addition, the rescued animals have do not have any microbes in their haemolymph and 66% survive to adult stages.

Expression of dlScer\UAS.cMa in circulating haemocytes, but not in other immune-responsive tissues, under the control of Scer\GAL4He.PZ, results in an absence of microbes from the haemolymph, with approximately 45% of dlScer\UAS.cMa expressing Dif1 dl1 double mutants surviving till adulthood.

Expression of dlScer\UAS.cMa in circulating haemocytes and lymph gland cells, under the control of Scer\GAL4srp.Hemo, increases blood cell number to approximately 90% of wild-type in Dif1 dl1 double mutants and enables approximately 50% survival till adulthood. The majority of these larvae have no microbes in their haemolymph.

The melanotic tumour penetrance and circulating hemocyte levels are partially reduced in lwr4-3 Df(2L)J4/lwr5 dl1 double mutants compared to lwr4-3/lwr5 single mutants. However, the amount of lamellocytes is not reduced.

In lwr4-3/lwr5; dl1/Df(2L)J4, total numbers of hemocytes are reduced compared to lwr4-3/lwr5 single mutants. Plasmatocyte levels are reduced by 50% compared to single mutants, while lamellocyte levels are not significantly reduced.

95% of twi1/+; dl1/+ animals raised at 18oC survive to adulthood whereas only 0.6% of those raised at 25oC do. This temperature sensitive lethality is not significantly affected by the presence or absence of scM6/+ or sc+t.XSE.

All embryos laid by cactE10/+, dl1/+ females are weakly dorsalized.

Embryos carrying foghs.PM show a flattened stretched appearance around their entire circumference and disorganisation of the ordered arrangement of cells.

The zygotic semi-lethality of cact7 homozygotes is not suppressed by dl1.

A partial restoration of cuticle pattern elements along the dorso-ventral axis is seen in embryos derived from dl1 females if the females also carry Difbcd.PS. The degree of ventralisation seen in these rescued embryos is increased if the females are also heterozygous for cact7. The gastrulation defects of embryos derived from dl1 females is partially rescued if the females also carry Difbcd.PS; anterior movement of the posterior midgut invagination is seen along the dorsal side of the embryo, but the ventral furrow does not form.

Double mutant combinations with eaD1 are strongly dorsalizing.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

The degree of lethality of embryos derived from dl1/+ females at 29[o]C is not significantly altered if the females are expressing of one copy of Zzzz\Pvank1Scer\UAS.T:Zzzz\FLAG under the control of Scer\GAL4mat.αTub67C.T:Hsim\VP16. However, if the females are expressing two copies of Zzzz\Pvank1Scer\UAS.T:Zzzz\FLAG, the fraction of embryos failing to hatch is increased, and the degree of dorsalisation of the unhatched embryos is more severe.

The degree of lethality of embryos derived from dl1/+ females at 29[o]C is not significantly altered if the females are expressing of one copy of Zzzz\I2vank3Scer\UAS.T:Zzzz\FLAG under the control of Scer\GAL4mat.αTub67C.T:Hsim\VP16. However, if the females are expressing two copies of Zzzz\I2vank3Scer\UAS.T:Zzzz\FLAG, the fraction of embryos failing to hatch is increased, and the degree of dorsalisation of the unhatched embryos is more severe.

Expression of BacA\p35GMR.PH in the haemocytes, under the control of Scer\GAL4He.PZ in Dif1 dl1 animals results in the number of blood cells per υl of haemolymph increasing 4-fold, to approximately 2200 cells per υl, whereas the blood cell number remains constant in Dif1 dl1 heterozygotes.

Complementation and Rescue Data
Rescued by
Partially rescued by

dl1 is partially rescued by dlTag:nt1

dl1 is partially rescued by dlM4prime.Tag:nt1

dl1 is partially rescued by dlM7prime.Tag:nt1

dl1 is partially rescued by dlM8.Tag:nt1

dl1 is partially rescued by dlM16.Tag:nt1

dl1 is partially rescued by dl380.Tag:nt1

dl1 is partially rescued by dlGlu312.bcd

dl1 is partially rescued by dlNLS.bcd

dl1 is partially rescued by dlAla312.bcd

Not rescued by

dl1 is not rescued by dlM2.Tag:nt1

Comments

dlT:boss-NT1 rescues the ventral denticle belts and Filzkorper and partially restores the head skeleton in embryos derived from dl1 females. However, the head is abnormal and hatching is not seen.

dlM16.T:boss-NT1 partially rescues the cuticle phenotype of embryos derived from dl1 females.

The cuticle phenotype of embryos derived from dl1 females is not rescued by dlM2.T:boss-NT1, dlM18.T:boss-NT1, dlM20.T:boss-NT1 or dlM23.T:boss-NT1.

The cuticle phenotype of embryos derived from dl1 females is only weakly rescued by dlM4prime.T:boss-NT1, dlM7prime.T:boss-NT1 or dlM8.T:boss-NT1.

dl380.T:boss-NT1 rescues the Filzkorper but not the ventral denticle belts in embryos derived from dl1 females.

Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (4)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer

C. Nusslein-Volhard.

Comments
Comments

Germline mosaic analysis shows that dl is required in the germline.

A strong allele of dl.

External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (2)
References (103)