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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Nspl-1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0012900
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
spl, Nspl, split, spl1, Nsp1
Mutagen
    Nature of the Allele
    Mutagen
    Mutations Mapped to the Genome
     
    Type
    Location
    Additional Notes
    References
    point mutation
    Nucleotide change:

    T3164361C

    Amino acid change:

    I578T | N-PA; I578T | N-PB

    Reported amino acid change:

    I578T

    Comment:

    Site of nucleotide substitution in mutant inferred by FlyBase based on reported amino acid change.

    Associated Sequence Data
    DNA sequence
    Protein sequence
     
     
    Progenitor genotype
    Cytology

    Polytene chromosomes normal.

    Nature of the lesion
    Statement
    Reference

    Amino acid replacement: I578T.

    Mutation is within EGF-like repeat 14 of the N extracellular domain.

    Substitution of an isoleucine for a threonine in EGF-repeat number 14.

    A missense mutation in the extracellular EGF-like domain.

    Carried on aberration
    Expression Data
    Reporter Expression
    Additional Information
    Statement
    Reference
     
    Marker for
    Reflects expression of
    Reporter construct used in assay
    Human Disease Associations
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Phenotypic Data
    Phenotypic Class
    Phenotype Manifest In

    ommatidium & eye disc | male

    photoreceptor cell & eye disc | male

    photoreceptor cell R8 & eye disc | male

    Detailed Description
    Statement
    Reference

    The retinas of Nspl-1 third instar larvae have a reduced number of photoreceptors and cone cells compared to wild type.

    The adult eyes of Nspl-1 mutants are reduced in size compared to controls.

    Nspl-1/Y flies display a uniformly rough and reduced eye.

    85-90% of Nspl-1/Y flies exhibit split and missing scutellar macrochaetes, whereas they display ectopic scutellar macrochaetes with attenuated (~45%) severity.

    Mutants have scutellar bristle defects (missing or twinned bristles).

    Mutants have a reduced, rough eye with missing or double bristles.

    Hemizygous Nspl-1 males have small, rough eyes. Some R8 cells and ommatidia are missing, while other ommatidia have abnormal R8 cells and lack other photoreceptor cells in Nspl-1/Y eye imaginal discs.

    When Nspl-1 clones are made in the developing eye, animals have fewer ommatidia and ommatidia with less than the normal complement of differentiated cells. Cell death is increased in mutant eyes. Many R8 precursors are absent. In about 13% of ommatidia with Nspl-1 clones ectopic R7 photoreceptor cells are seen.

    Mutant flies have 120.22 +/- 1.34 thoracic microchaetae per heminotum (compared to the wild-type number of 130.35 +/- 1.54).

    Nspl-1 mutants exhibit rough and small eyes.

    Nspl-1 mutants exhibit elevated levels of asymmetry and reduced mean character size relative to Canton-S flies for thoracic bristles. These mutants also display significantly elevated asymmetry relative to Canton-S for scutellar, vibrissa and carnia as well as sternopleural bristles.

    Homozygotes show small rough eyes and split bristles.

    Dorsocentral bristles appear split due to a duplication of the bristle shaft at the expense of the socket cell. Conversely, at the back of the head, double sockets appear instead of microchaetae. Homozygous females have smaller eyes of rough appearance due to irregular spacing of ommatidia.

    Small rough eyes, twinned bristles and missing bristles.

    Heterozygous females have largely wild-type eyes, although missing or double interommatidial bristles are sometimes seen.

    Heterozygotes have a neurogenic phenotype and have an increase in the number of thoracic bristles compared to wild-type. The number of bristles is restored almost to wild-type in Nspl-1; Dp(1;2)51b double heterozygotes.

    Eye size of Nspl-1 is increased in males that are homozygous for mle4.

    Macrochaetae and microchaetae lost or affected by abnormal differentiation are those that are most sensitive to Abruptex mutants. In combination with a N null allele, Nspl-1 causes extra macrochaetae and microchaetae. In presence of a N duplication, the mutant phenotype is reduced but not suppressed.

    Clones mutant for spl on the thorax display a loss of function phenotype: more bristles are formed.

    Nspl-1 heterozygotes have essentially wild-type eyes. Nspl-1 heterozygotes also carrying EgfrE3 or EgfrE1 have rougher eyes. Hemizygous Nspl-1 animals homozygous for EgfrE3 or EgfrE1 have almost no facets, the eyes being composed almost entirely of pigment cells and bristles.

    Individuals homozygous for Bpt1 and Nspl-1 exhibit no Bpt1 phenotype and an enhanced spl phenotype.

    Small rough eyes and missing or doubled bristles.

    Eyes rough and small. Many bristles doubled, sometimes missing. Bristle effect caused by an extra division of initial bristle-forming cell (FBrf0005804). Few bristles (but not their sockets) regularly removed from posterior border of tergites in Nspl-1/+ heterozygotes (Welshons). N64d6 Nspl-1 flies cannot be distinguished from N64d6/+ flies. When Nspl-1 is coupled to N64d6, Nspl-1 is not enhanced by E(spl)1. A temperature-sensitive effect is shown by N264-103/Nspl-1 flies, which have abnormal eye facets at 28-29oC but are almost wild type at 20-22oC. The spl phenotype can be enhanced by E(spl)1/+ or E(spl)1/E(spl)1. Nspl-1/+;E(spl)1/+ flies resemble Nspl-1/Nspl-1 flies; Nspl-1/Nspl-1; E(spl)1/+ and Nspl-1/Y;E(spl)1/+ flies show a very extreme mutant phenotype. Nspl-1/Y; groE73/+ males and Nspl-1/+; groE73/+ females show spl and Ax-like phenotypes (Xu et al.). The spl phenotype is reduced in mam heterozygotes. When, however, Nspl-1 is coupled to a N point mutant, as in N64d6 Nspl-1/++; E(spl)1/+, the phenotype is not spl. The Nspl-1 phenotype becomes dominant if Nspl-1 is coupled, in cis, to lethal Ax alleles. RK1.

    Phenotypes have topographic pattern specificities. Homozygotes show duplications and absence of trichogens preferentially in posterior and medial regions of the tergites.

    Increase in microchaetae density in the mesonotum when in combination with N amorph alleles and absence of macrochaetae when homozygote.

    Eye discs contain well-spaced clusters of cells with apically disposed nuclei, the number and arrangement of the cells is grossly abnormal. More than one boss-expressing cell was observed within many clusters. Prior to row 6 many cells per cluster contain boss-immunoreactive multivesicular bodies, boss is internalized as soon as boss expression is present on an adjacent cell surface. This correlates with a decrease in the number of R1-R6 neurons and an increase in the number of R7 neurons.

    Homozygotes and hemizygotes have rough eyes which are slightly reduced in size compared to wild-type. Individual ommatidia are missing and ommatidia often contain fewer photoreceptor cells than normal and have defects in other ommatidial cell types. Photoreceptor cell axons appear normal.

    The total number of bristles on the basitarsi of the second legs is increased and the number of sensilla is decreased. A number of shaftless, misshapen sockets are seen.

    Homozygotes have small rough eyes due to reduced number of facets and twinned or missing bristles (FBrf0049795). Eye phenotype can be suppressed by sca and enhanced by extra copies of sca+ and vg+, the bristle phenotype is unaffected.

    Pronounced eye phenotype. Does not interact with dxENU.

    Small rough eyes and duplicated bristles.

    Haploabnormal wing phenotype.

    Early ommatidia in homozygous third instar discs are often poorly arranged and contain an abnormal number of cells. Rarely a single photoreceptor cell is found, and mitotic figures occasionally occur abnormally close to the furrow. By midpupation ommatidia often contain abnormal numbers of photoreceptors, cone cells and secondary pigment cells. Bristles are scattered and photoreceptors can be found beneath the retina. The eye is smaller than normal. Temperature shifts of third-instar Nl1N-ts1 larvae phenocopy the external defects of Nspl-1.

    Adult eyes rough, slightly reduced, with irregular facets and multiple setae. Irregular size, shape and composition of ommatidia: fewer than normal rhabdomeres per ommatidium. Eye disc pattern, shape and size irregular.

    Heterozygoutes have rough eyes. Hemizygotes show a more extreme reduction in eye size than homozygotes as well as an increase in facet and bristle abnormalities. Nspl-1/Y; E(spl)1/+ flies show a very extreme mutant phenotype.

    Dp(2;Y)G44 males crossed to a stock carrying Nspl-1 produce sons that have straight wings or curly wings. Curly wings result from trisomy for the 44C--50B region: enhance the mutant effect of Nspl-1.

    The split phenotype becomes dominant if Nspl-1 is coupled, in cis, to lethal Ax alleles.

    Homozygotes and hemizygotes develop small and rough compound eyes. Some macrochaetae are split or completely missing. The presence of one copy of E(spl)1 causes Nspl-1 to acquire a dominant phenotypic expression in all its traits. Dp(3;3)Su8 exerts a slight enhancing effect of the Nspl-1 phenotype.

    Homozygous have small eyes with a rough, pebbly surface. Some bristles are doubled, while others, such as the ocellar, supraalar and presutural bristles are missing, and some extra hairs are present. These phenotypes are the same at 18, 25 and 29oC.

    Hemizygotes and homozygotes have reduced eyes with an irregular facet arrangement, and missing or doubled bristles are frequently seen. N264-103/Nspl-1 flies show wing nicking and tarsal segment fusion phenotypes and also show the Nspl-1 eye phenotype. The mutant eye and wing phenotypes are more strongly expressed at high temperatures than low temperatures, and tarsal fusion only occurs at high temperatures. At 20-22oC, the eyes approach wild type but usually contain small, irregularly positioned areas of facet disarray, while at 28-29oC the facet disarray extends over the whole surface of the eye. The temperature sensitive periods of these phenotypes occur during the third larval instar stage.

    The split phenotype becomes dominant if Nspl-1 is coupled, in cis, to lethal Ax alleles. When Nspl-1 is coupled to a N point mutant, as in N64d6,Nspl-1/++; E(spl)1/+, the phenotype is not split.

    N68j/Nspl-1 flies have a Nspl-1 phenotype.

    NM/Nspl-1 flies have roughened eyes which are smaller than normal and split bristles.

    N47i/Nspl-1 flies have a bristle phenotype but not a roughened eye phenotype. No phenotype is seen in N51d/Nspl-1 flies.

    Homozygotes have rough eyes.

    External Data
    Interactions
    Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
    Phenotypic Class
    Enhanced by
    Statement
    Reference

    Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, enhanceable by vtd80Fh-36/vtd[+]

    Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, enhanceable by vtdγ26-6/vtd[+]

    Nspl-1 has visible | dominant phenotype, enhanceable by Df(3R)Dl-FX3

    Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, enhanceable by E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1

    NOT Enhanced by
    Statement
    Reference

    Nspl-1 has visible | dominant phenotype, non-enhanceable by E(spl)m8-HLHtLa

    Suppressed by
    Statement
    Reference

    Nspl-1 has size defective | adult stage phenotype, suppressible | partially by wg[+]/wgl-17

    Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, suppressible by snamaPX1/mnm[+]

    Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, suppressible by l(2)rQ313[+]/snamarQ313

    Nspl-1 has visible | recessive phenotype, suppressible by Gp150[+]/Gp150k11120b

    Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, suppressible by dshhs.PA

    Nspl-1 has visible | dominant phenotype, suppressible by wgS107

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, suppressible by DlBE21/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, suppressible by DlBE35/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, suppressible by DlBX40/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, suppressible by Dl[+]/DlBX41

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, suppressible by Dl[+]/DlBX43

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, suppressible by DlBX45/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, suppressible by DlBX46/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, suppressible by Dl[+]/DlCE21

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, suppressible by DlCE23/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, suppressible by DlCE33/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, suppressible by DlCE34/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, suppressible by Dl[+]/DlBE23

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, suppressible by DlCE37/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, suppressible by Dl[+]/DlCE43

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, suppressible by DlBE24/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, suppressible by DlBE26/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, suppressible by DlBE32/Dl[+]

    NOT suppressed by
    Statement
    Reference

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has visible phenotype, non-suppressible by DlHD82/Dl[+]

    Suppressor of
    Statement
    Reference

    N+/Nspl-1 is a suppressor | partially of visible | heat sensitive phenotype of Dcr-2UAS.cDa, EogtGD5084, Scer\GAL4en.PU

    Other
    Statement
    Reference
    Phenotype Manifest In
    Enhanced by
    Statement
    Reference

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, enhanceable by vtd80Fh-36/vtd[+]

    Nspl-1 has scutellar bristle phenotype, enhanceable by vtd80Fh-36/vtd[+]

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, enhanceable by vtdγ26-6/vtd[+]

    Nspl-1 has scutellar bristle phenotype, enhanceable by vtdγ26-6/vtd[+]

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, enhanceable by E(spl)m8-HLH+t2.8

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, enhanceable by E(spl)m8-HLH1.tNa

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, enhanceable by E(spl)m7-HLH+t5.6

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by Df(2R)Nipped-D263.3

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by Df(2R)Nipped-E43

    Nspl-1 has ommatidium phenotype, enhanceable by E(spl)m8-HLHK1K2mut

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by E(spl)m8-HLH1.tKa

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by rn[+]/rnroe-KE17

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by rn[+]/rnroe-KE18

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by rnroe-KE27/rn[+]

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by rnroe-KE55/rn[+]

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by rn[+]/rnroe-KE100

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by rnroe-KE345/rn[+]

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by rnroe-KE405/rn[+]

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by rnroe-KEK2/rn[+]

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by rnroe-KX314/rn[+]

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by rnroe-KE89/rn[+]

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by rn[+]/rnroe-KE113

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by rn[+]/rnroe-KE380

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by rnroe-KE399/rn[+]

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by rnroe-KE80/rn[+]

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by rn[+]/rnroe-KE350

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by rnroe-KE409/rn[+]

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by rn[+]/rnroe-KX316

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, enhanceable by E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by E(spl)m8-HLHrv29

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by E(spl)m8-HLHrv30

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, enhanceable by E(spl)m8-HLHrv31

    NOT Enhanced by
    Statement
    Reference

    Nspl-1 has scutellar bristle | ectopic phenotype, non-enhanceable by Df(3R)Espl22/+

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, non-enhanceable by E(spl)m8-HLH1.UAS/Scer\GAL4h-H10

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, non-enhanceable by Egfrf3

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, non-enhanceable by S54

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, non-enhanceable by SIIN

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, non-enhanceable by hh18

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, non-enhanceable by hh21

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, non-enhanceable by hh3

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, non-enhanceable by wgl-12

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, non-enhanceable by wgl-9

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, non-enhanceable by E(spl)m8-HLH::E(spl)m5-HLHcNa

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, non-enhanceable by Chie5.5

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, non-enhanceable by Nipped-A222.3

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, non-enhanceable by Su(H)8

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, non-enhanceable by vg1

    Nspl-1 has macrochaeta phenotype, non-enhanceable by Nipped-B292.1

    Nspl-1 has macrochaeta phenotype, non-enhanceable by Su(H)16

    Nspl-1 has ommatidium phenotype, non-enhanceable by E(spl)m8-HLHtLa

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, non-enhanceable by E(S)1

    Suppressed by
    Statement
    Reference

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible | partially by wg[+]/wgl-17

    Nspl-1 has cone cell phenotype, suppressible | partially by wg[+]/wgl-17

    Nspl-1 has photoreceptor phenotype, suppressible | partially by wg[+]/wgl-17

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by Df(3R)Espl22/+

    Nspl-1 has scutellar bristle phenotype, suppressible by Df(3R)Espl22/+

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by Nipped-B[+]/Nipped-B407

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by snamaPX1/mnm[+]

    Nspl-1 has ommatidium phenotype, suppressible by snamaPX1/mnm[+]

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by l(2)rQ313[+]/snamarQ313

    Nspl-1 has ommatidium phenotype, suppressible by l(2)rQ313[+]/snamarQ313

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by Gp150[+]/Gp150k11120b

    Nspl-1 has microchaeta phenotype, suppressible by dshhs.PA

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by Hsc70-4195

    Nspl-1 has macrochaeta phenotype, suppressible by Hsc70-4195

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, suppressible by Df(2R)Nipped-D263.3

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by Df(2R)Nipped-D341.1

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by Df(2R)Nipped-E338

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by Nipped-B292.1

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by Nipped-B407

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by Nipped-A323

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by RpL3845-72

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by Su(H)16

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, suppressible by Su(spl)KE7

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, suppressible by Dlsup4

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, suppressible by Dlsup5

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, suppressible by scaKE15

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, suppressible by scaKE17

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, suppressible by scaKE305

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, suppressible by scaKE3

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, suppressible by scaKX2

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by mam10/mam[+]

    Nspl-1 has chaeta phenotype, suppressible by mam10/mam[+]

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by mam88-4/mam[+]

    Nspl-1 has chaeta phenotype, suppressible by mam88-4/mam[+]

    Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible | partially by mam88-10/mam[+]

    Nspl-1 has chaeta phenotype, suppressible | partially by mam88-10/mam[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by DlBE32/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by DlBE35/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by DlBX40/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by Dl[+]/DlBX41

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by Dl[+]/DlBX43

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by DlBE21/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by DlBX45/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by DlBX46/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by Dl[+]/DlCE21

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by DlCE23/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by DlCE33/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by DlCE34/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by DlCE37/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by Dl[+]/DlCE43

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by Dl[+]/DlBE23

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by DlBE24/Dl[+]

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, suppressible by DlBE26/Dl[+]

    NOT suppressed by
    Statement
    Reference

    Nspl-1 has scutellar bristle | ectopic phenotype, non-suppressible by Df(3R)Espl22/+

    Nspl-1 has photoreceptor cell R8 & eye disc | male phenotype, non-suppressible by Scer\GAL4sca-109-68/Dl::SerDl-E.Ser-I.UAS

    Nspl-1 has ommatidium & eye disc | male phenotype, non-suppressible by Scer\GAL4sca-109-68/Dl::SerDl-E.Ser-I.UAS

    Nspl-1 has photoreceptor cell & eye disc | male phenotype, non-suppressible by Scer\GAL4sca-109-68/Dl::SerDl-E.Ser-I.UAS

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, non-suppressible by Chie5.5

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, non-suppressible by Nipped-A222.3

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, non-suppressible by Su(H)8

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, non-suppressible by vg1

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, non-suppressible by Nipped-A394.2

    Nspl-1 has macrochaeta phenotype, non-suppressible by Nipped-B292.1

    Nspl-1 has macrochaeta phenotype, non-suppressible by Su(H)16

    E(spl)[+]/E(spl)m8-HLH1, Nspl-1 has eye phenotype, non-suppressible by DlHD82/Dl[+]

    Nspl-1 has phenotype, non-suppressible by su(Hw)2

    Enhancer of
    Statement
    Reference
    Suppressor of
    Statement
    Reference
    Other
    Additional Comments
    Genetic Interactions
    Statement
    Reference

    The wing blistering phenotype seen in the posterior compartment of wings in flies expressing EogtGD5084 under the control of Scer\GAL4en.PU in the presence of Dcr-2Scer\UAS.cDa is dominantly partially suppressed if the flies are also heterozygous for Nspl-1.

    wgl-17/+ suppresses the adult eye size phenotype seen in Nspl-1 mutants.

    wgl-17/+ suppresses the cone cell and photoreceptor loss phenotypes seen in Nspl-1 third instar larvae.

    Nspl-1/Y; E(spl)1/+ mutants exhibit a severely reduced eye. The residual eye field is highly disorganised; the clustering of the interommatidial bristles might well reflect facet loss.

    The severe reduced eye found in Nspl-1/Y; E(spl)1/+ mutants is partially suppressed upon overexpression of E(spl)123-179.CtD.Scer\UAS immediately anterior to the morphogenetic furrow under the control of Scer\GAL4h-H10. Expression of E(spl)123-179.CtD.Scer\UAS not only increases eye size (facet numbers), but also restores the patterning of the facets. This patterning is, however, lost toward the anterior margin of the residual eye.

    The severe reduced eye found in Nspl-1/Y; E(spl)1/+ mutants is unaffected by overexpression of E(spl)S159D.123-179.CtD.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4h-H10.

    Expression of E(spl)123-179.CtD.Scer\UAS in trans, in all cells posterior to the morphogenetic furrow, under the control of Scer\GAL4GMR.PF does not rescue the severe reduced eye phenotype found in Nspl-1/Y; E(spl)1/+ mutants. The absence of rescue is also supported by facet numbers, which upon expression of three independent E(spl)123-179.CtD.Scer\UAS lines closely mimicks control levels in Nspl-1/Y; E(spl)1/+ mutants. Rescue of the Nspl-1/Y; E(spl)1/+ retinal defects by E(spl)123-179.CtD.Scer\UAS therefore requires expression in a region of the developing eye where funding R8 photoreceptors are patterned and specified.

    Expression of E(spl)m8-HLH1.Scer\UAS mediated by Scer\GAL4h-H10 in a Nspl-1/Y background elicits a severely reduced eye.

    Expression of E(spl)m8-HLHSD.Δgro.Scer\UAS mediated by Scer\GAL4h-H10 suppresses the Nspl-1/Y rough and reduced eye and appears to restore ommatidial phasing.

    Expression of E(spl)m8-HLHSD.Δgro.Scer\UAS mediated by Scer\GAL4sca-109-68 suppresses the Nspl-1/Y rough and reduced eye.

    Df(3R)Espl22/+ suppresses the Nspl-1/Y rough and reduced eye.

    Expression of CkIIαdsRNA.Scer\UAS or CkIIαScer\UAS.Tik mediated by Scer\GAL4h-H10 suppresses the Nspl-1/Y rough and reduced eye.

    Expression of E(spl)m8-HLHSD.Δgro.Scer\UAS mediated by Scer\GAL4h-H10 potently suppresses the Nspl-1/Y scutellar bristle phenotypes.

    Df(3R)Espl22/+ or expression of CkIIαdsRNA.Scer\UAS mediated by Scer\GAL4h-H10 suppresses the Nspl-1/Y split/missing scutellar bristle phenotype but does not modulate the Nspl-1/Y ectopic scutellar bristle phenotype.

    The lack of scutellar bristles seen in Nspl-1 flies is enhanced by vtd80Fh-36/+ or vtdγ26-6/+.

    Expression of E(spl)1.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4h-H10 in a Nspl-1/Y background results in reduced eyes that are similar in appearance to those seen in Nspl-1/Y single mutants.

    E(spl)1/+, Nspl-1/Y flies have severely reduced eyes. They typically exhibit 4-8 residual ommatidia.

    Expression of Dl::SerDl-E.Ser-I.Scer\UAS (line A10, P{UAS-Dl::Ser.L}A10) in R8 cells (using Scer\GAL4sca-109-68) does not rescue the adult eye or eye imaginal disc defects of hemizygous Nspl-1 males.

    Nspl-1/Y, Gp150k11120b/+ animals have eyes that are almost wild-type, only mild aberrations in facet arrangement and some bristle duplications remain.

    The addition of BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa driven by BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa to Nspl-1 somatic clones does not rescue all the eye phenotypes seen in Nspl-1 cells. When DlScer\UAS.cLa is driven by Scer\GAL4GMR.PF in a Nspl-1 background photoreceptor R8 differentiation is greatly reduced. The R8 photoreceptor cell phenotype seen in Nspl-1 clones is slightly enhanced by the addition of fng13.

    When DlScer\UAS.cLa is driven by Scer\GAL4GMR.PF in a Nspl-1 background photoreceptor R8 differentiation is greatly reduced.

    The R8 photoreceptor cell phenotype seen in Nspl-1 clones is slightly enhanced by the addition of fng13.

    The number of microchaetae in Nspl-1 flies is increased to 153.33 +/- 1.42 by expression of dshhs.PA using a heat pulse.

    The Nspl-1 eye phenotype is enhanced by E(spl)1 and further enhanced by da5 and ato3 and ato5, and suppressed by scaunspecified.

    The addition of E(spl)1.Scer\UAS driven by Scer\GAL4unspecified to a Nspl-1 background produces a strong enhancement of the Nspl-1 eye phenotype, whilst the addition of E(spl)Scer\UAS.cGa shows little or no effect.

    Nipped-A222.3, Nipped-A394.2, l(2)41Ae7, Chie5.5, vg1 and Su(H)8 have little or no effect on the eye phenotype. Nipped-A222.3, Nipped-B292.1, Chie5.5, vg1, Su(H)16 and Su(H)8 have little or no effect on the bristle phenotype. Df(2R)Nipped-D341.1, Df(2R)Nipped-D263.3 and Df(2R)Nipped-E338 dominantly suppress the eye phenotype. Df(2R)Nipped-D341.1, Df(2R)Nipped-D263.3, Df(2R)Nipped-E43 and Df(2R)Nipped-E338 dominantly enhance the bristle phenotype.

    The heterozygous eye phenotype is unaffected if the flies are also carrying two copies of E(spl)tLa, but is enhanced if the flies are carrying two copies of E(spl)K:CAACdel or E(spl)K1K2mut; resulting in ommatidial fusion and bristle multiplication.

    The number of thoracic bristles is increased further in hemizygous or Df(3R)Dl-FX3 ; Nspl-1 double heterozygous flies, and the number of bristles is restored to wild-type in Nspl-1; wgS107 double heterozygotes.

    Double mutants with cnomis1 always have rumpled wings curved downwards and extra bristles.

    Complex interactions with dx alleles.

    Nspl-1 flies also heterozygous for E(spl)1 show a conspicuous enhancement of this phenotype; in particular the size of the compound eye is severely reduced and only 15-30 widely spaced facets can be distinguished. The ommatidia contain fewer photoreceptors than normal, and the rhabdomeres are often distorted. A large number of secondary pigment cells fill the space between the scattered photoreceptor cell clusters. Photoreceptor cell axons follow an aberrant course, and usually fail to enter the eye stalk. The pattern of cell proliferation is qualitatively normal in Nspl-1/Y E(spl)1/+ flies as assayed by BrdU incorporation. There is abundant cell death in the eye imaginal discs of these flies during the third instar larval stage, dead cells are more abundant behind the morphogenetic furrow.

    Both the eye and bristle phenotype are suppressed when in combination with one copy of mam10 or mam88-4, weak suppression is seen with mam88-10. Hemizygotes and homozygotes, in combination with one copy of groE73, display an Ax-like phenotype, small gaps in the posterior end of the fifth longitudinal wing vein.

    parX1122 Nspl-1/FM3 heterozygotes have a Nspl-1 phenotype.

    Males carrying Nspl-1 and sno1 have difficulty in eclosion and survive only briefly.

    E(S)1 has little or no effect on the rough eye phenotype in ecunspecified E(S)1 double heterozygotes.

    Xenogenetic Interactions
    Statement
    Reference

    The addition of BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa driven by BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa to Nspl-1 somatic clones does not rescue all the eye phenotypes seen in Nspl-1 cells.

    Complementation and Rescue Data
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    Notes on Origin
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    Comments

    Nspl-1 acts as a loss of function allele with respect to N inductive processes during eye development.

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