microchaeta & actin filament
ebo678 sn3 double mutants exhibit differences in the appearance of the ellipsoid and fan-shaped bodies, compared to wild-type and exhibit behavioral defects as found in ebo678 single mutants. The ellipsoid body defect is clearly visible in 100% of the animals but is more variable, ranging from just open at the bottom, to totally dissociated into two lumps of neuropil.
No correlation is observed between the severity of the structural and behavioral defects in ebo678 sn3 gynandromorphs. Of those gynandromorphs in which the central complex can be distinguished, roughly half exhibit abnormal ellipsoid bodies and behavioral defects. Mutant yaw torque activity and torque spike frequency is found in about 39% and 64% of ebo678 sn3 gynandromorphs.
The denticles of m1, sn3 mutants show splitting in addition to the defects seen in either single mutant. sn3, m1, f36a triple mutants have small, highly misshapen denticles that are more affected than those of m1, f36a or m1, sn3 double mutants. sn3, m1, f36a; shaV15 and sn3, m1, f36a; WASp3 quadruple mutants show further impairment to denticle formation compared to sn3, m1, f36a triple mutants, with mutants exhibiting regions of naked cuticle where denticles lie in wild-type animals.
The dorsal hairs on the abdominal segments of sn3, m1, f36a triple mutants are severly reduced in size, and in some cases, hairs are abrogated leaving abnormal naked regions. This phenotype is more severe in sn3, m1, f36a; WASp3 quadruple mutants and is even more severe in sn3, m1, f36a; shaV15 mutants in which most dorsal hairs are absent, leaving naked cuticle.
In f36a sn3 double mutants, bristle ridges of length more than 10υm (45% of wild-type length) are not found. Instead, a variety of short ridges 3-10υm in length are found. Some of these are parallel to the longitudinal axis of the bristle, whereas others are perpendicular or oblique. These ridges are seldom connected to one another but terminate freely on the surface.
In f36a, sn3 double mutants, bristle cells contain tiny rafts of membrane-attached actin filament clusters, which consist of a monolayer of filament. This is a more extreme phenotype than that observed with either of the single mutants. When these f36a, sn3 mutant cells are treated with jasplakinolide, large clusters of actin filaments appear internally, most of which run parallel to the longitudinal axis of the bristle. These clusters have an irregular shape and have a liquid ordered packing of filaments, instead of wild-type hexagonal packing.
The arista lateral phenotype of sn3 f36a double mutants is not substantially stronger than either single mutant. Double mutant arista laterals are thinner than wild type. At a low frequency, branched laterals are seen. The mutant laterals start to extend at the normal time, but their rate of extension is slower than normal.
Mohr, 11th June 1922.