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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\wa
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
apricot
FlyBase ID
FBal0018195
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Key Links
Mutagen
Nature of the Allele
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference

Insertion of a copia element into the second intron.

copia insertion in the second intron.

Antiparallel blood insertion into intron 2.

7.2kb 3S18 insert within the w locus.

Insertion of a copia element in the second intron, in parallel orientation.

copia insertion into the second intervening sequence.

5.2kb parallel copia insertion into the second intron.

Insertion of a copia element.

Parallel copia-element insertion in second intron.

Insertion of copia element into an intron of w.

copia insertion into an intron.

copia insertion in second chromosome.

Insertion of copia element into the second intron.

copia insertion within the small intron of the w gene.

Insertion of a copia element within the small intron.

The wa allele of the white locus has been cloned by retrieving previously cloned segments carrying a copy of the transposable element copia together with contiguous sequences (Bingham, Levis and Rubin, 1981; Gehring and Paro, 1980). Bingham and Judd (1981) have shown that copia homology is tightly linked to the site of wa, copia being located at coordinate 0.0 on the physical map of the white locus (Levis, Bingham and Rubin, 1982; Levis, O'Hare and Rubin, 1984) and inserted in the small second intron (Pirrotta and Brockl, 1984). The size of the copia insertion is 5 kb. A small amount of the normal 2.6 kb white transcript is also found in wa mutants. su(wa), which darkens the eyes of wa flies, results in a higher level of the 2.6 kb transcript, while su(f), which decreases the amount of pigment, results in a lower level of this transcript. Partial revertants of wa have been sequenced and found to retain one LTR of copia (Carbonare and Gehring, 1985; Mount et al., 1988; Zachar, Davison, Garza and Bingham, 1985b). 5.0 kb copia insertion map site (kb): 0 (by definition)

Insertion of a 5.0 kb copia-element at map position 0.0 relative to the transcription start site of w.

copia insertion at coordinate 0, using coordinate system of FBrf0038648 where coordinate 0 is the copia insert of wa.

Insertion components
copia{}wa
Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease-implicated variant(s)
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

wa mutant flies have orange eyes.

Homozygotes have dull orange eyes with only 3% red pigment (compared to 100% pigment in wild type).

Shows slight hyper dosage compensation.

Modified by z mutations.

mle4 has very little effect on the dosage compensation of wa : homozygous males have slightly darker eyes than their heterozygous brothers.

Homozygous males are darker than homozygous females. Triple X metafemale individuals homozygous for wa exhibit dosage compensation of pigment levels.

Eye colour: yellow-orange. wa is slightly dosage overcompensated in males conferring slightly more eye pigment.

Strong response to E(wa).

Enhanced by duplications of Doa+.

Eye colour: wsp1/wa flies have brown eyes at eclosion, which become somewhat darker with age.

Eye colour: slightly darker than wa in the triple mutant su(wa) wa su(f)1.

Eye colour: orange-brown.

Eye colour: white in wa wch. Eye colour: white in wbf wa. Eye colour: like wa in wBwx wa.

A wa optic disk transplanted into a wild-type host shows autonomous eye color development.

The amount of pigment formed by wa is a function of gene dose: wa/- female < wa/Y male = wa/wa female < wa/wa/wa female < wa/wa male.

Eye colour: yellowish with orange tone in males; lighter and somewhat yellower in females. Eye colour: mottled, with mw1. Eye colour: nearly white with rb1. Eye colour: nearly white with g1. Malpighian tubule colour: colourless. Eye colour: mottled, with mw1.

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

wa has abnormal eye color phenotype, enhanceable by mw2a

wa has abnormal eye color phenotype, enhanceable by mw1

NOT Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

wa has abnormal eye color phenotype, non-enhanceable by Nacαhs.PF

Suppressed by
Statement
Reference

wa has abnormal eye color phenotype, suppressible | partially by Pcf11EMS2/Inr-a[+]

wa has abnormal eye color phenotype, suppressible by Df(2R)vg135/+

wa has abnormal eye color phenotype, suppressible by ox[+]/ox1

wa has abnormal eye color | recessive phenotype, suppressible by Rga[+]/Rga03834

wa has abnormal eye color | recessive phenotype, suppressible by Low1

NOT suppressed by
Statement
Reference

wa has visible | adult stage phenotype, non-suppressible by wocD1

wa has abnormal eye color phenotype, non-suppressible by Nacαhs.PF

Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

wa/we(g) is an enhancer of abnormal eye color phenotype of g53d

wa/we(g) is an enhancer of abnormal eye color phenotype of g2

wa/we(g) is an enhancer of abnormal eye color phenotype of g50e

Other
Phenotype Manifest In
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

wa has eye phenotype, enhanceable by Dp(2;2)Pdup-3/+

wa has pigment cell phenotype, enhanceable by Kr-h105208

wa has pigment cell phenotype, enhanceable by Kr-h110642

sgl05007, wa has pigment cell phenotype, enhanceable by hh2

sgl05007, wa has pigment cell phenotype, enhanceable by hhAC

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by MowEMS

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by Ufo1

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by Wowγb

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by Mowgamma

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by Wowγe

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by Wowems1

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by Wowhd1

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by Rm62D

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by Rm62Dem

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by Rm62E

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by Rm62F

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by Rm62H

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by Rm62K

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by Ts(YLt;3Rt)R128

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by su(f)4

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by su(f)8

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by su(f)12

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by su(f)1

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by E(wa)706E706

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by E(wa)709E709

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by E(wa)736E736

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by E(wa)757E757

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by E(wa)761E761

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by E(wa)818E818

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by mw3P

wa has pigment cell phenotype, enhanceable by mw2a

wa has pigment cell phenotype, enhanceable by mw1

wa has phenotype, enhanceable by E(wa)1

NOT Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

wa has phenotype, non-enhanceable by Kr-h105208rev

wa has phenotype, non-enhanceable by Ts(YLt;2Lt)G120

wa has phenotype, non-enhanceable by Ts(YLt;2Lt)H52+Ts(YLt;2Rt)J96

wa has phenotype, non-enhanceable by Ts(YLt;2Rt)B110+Ts(YSt;2Lt)D20

wa has phenotype, non-enhanceable by Ts(YLt;2Rt)D20+Ts(YSt;2Lt)G10

wa has phenotype, non-enhanceable by Ts(YSt;2Lt)L23+Ts(YSt;2Rt)R155

wa has phenotype, non-enhanceable by Ts(YSt;2Lt)A24+Ts(YLt;2Rt)L23

wa has phenotype, non-enhanceable by Ts(YSt;2Lt)H149+Ts(YSt;2Rt)R14

wa has phenotype, non-enhanceable by Dp(2;Y)J64

wa has phenotype, non-enhanceable by Ts(YLt;2Rt)B202

wa has phenotype, non-enhanceable by Ts(YLt;3Lt)B141

wa has phenotype, non-enhanceable by Ts(Y;3Rt)J1+Ts(YSt;3Lt)L132

wa has phenotype, non-enhanceable by Ts(YSt;2Rt)H52+Ts(YSt;2Lt)L52

wa has phenotype, non-enhanceable by Ts(Y;3Lt)J1+Ts(YSt;3Rt)J162

wa has phenotype, non-enhanceable by Ts(YSt;3Lt)B93+Ts(YSt;3Rt)B116

wa has phenotype, non-enhanceable by Ts(YLt;3Rt)B93+Ts(YLt;3Lt)D100

wa has phenotype, non-enhanceable by Ts(YLt;3Rt)B93+Ts(YLt;3Lt)G73

wa has phenotype, non-enhanceable by mod(mdg4)ul

Suppressed by
Statement
Reference

wa has eye phenotype, suppressible | partially by Df(2R)Pdel-1/+

wa has eye phenotype, suppressible | partially by Pcf11EMS2/Inr-a[+]

sgl05007, wa has pigment cell phenotype, suppressible by wg1

sgl05007, wa has pigment cell phenotype, suppressible by wgP

wa has pigment cell phenotype, suppressible by RpLP001544

wa has pigment cell phenotype, suppressible by Rga[+]/Rga03834

wa has phenotype, suppressible by Low1

wa has phenotype, suppressible by Pcf11EMS2

wa has pigment cell phenotype, suppressible by Low1

wa has phenotype, suppressible by Ufo1

wa has phenotype, suppressible by Inr-b1

wa has phenotype, suppressible by Doa01705b

wa has phenotype, suppressible by In(3)Msu1

wa has phenotype, suppressible by In(3)Msu2

wa has phenotype, suppressible by Su(wa4)M1

wa has phenotype, suppressible by DoaE755

wa has phenotype, suppressible by DoaE777

wa has phenotype, suppressible by DoaE786

wa has phenotype, suppressible by DoaXP11

wa has phenotype, suppressible by DoaXP28

wa has phenotype, suppressible by E(wa)705E705

wa has phenotype, suppressible by E(wa)829E829

wa has phenotype, suppressible by Pcf11γb

wa has phenotype, suppressible by Pcf11γc

wa has phenotype, suppressible by Pcf11γd

wa has phenotype, suppressible by Pcf11EMS3

wa has phenotype, suppressible by Pcf11EMS4

wa has phenotype, suppressible by Pcf11EMS5

wa has phenotype, suppressible by Pcf11hd1

wa has phenotype, suppressible by DoaHD

wa has phenotype, suppressible by Doa3

wa has phenotype, suppressible by Doa4

wa has phenotype, suppressible by Doa5

wa has phenotype, suppressible by Doa6

wa has phenotype, suppressible by Doa7

wa has phenotype, suppressible by Doa8

wa has phenotype, suppressible by Doa9

wa has phenotype, suppressible by su(wa)unspecified

wa has phenotype, suppressible by Tp(2;3)P

NOT suppressed by
Statement
Reference

wa has eye phenotype, non-suppressible by wocD1

wa has phenotype, non-suppressible by Ts(YLt;2Lt)G120

wa has phenotype, non-suppressible by Ts(YLt;2Lt)H52+Ts(YLt;2Rt)J96

wa has phenotype, non-suppressible by Ts(YLt;2Rt)B110+Ts(YSt;2Lt)D20

wa has phenotype, non-suppressible by Ts(YLt;2Rt)D20+Ts(YSt;2Lt)G10

wa has phenotype, non-suppressible by Ts(YSt;2Lt)L23+Ts(YSt;2Rt)R155

wa has phenotype, non-suppressible by Ts(YSt;2Lt)A24+Ts(YLt;2Rt)L23

wa has phenotype, non-suppressible by Ts(YSt;2Lt)H149+Ts(YSt;2Rt)R14

wa has phenotype, non-suppressible by Dp(2;Y)J64

wa has phenotype, non-suppressible by Ts(YLt;2Rt)B202

wa has phenotype, non-suppressible by Ts(YLt;3Lt)B141

wa has phenotype, non-suppressible by Ts(Y;3Rt)J1+Ts(YSt;3Lt)L132

wa has phenotype, non-suppressible by Ts(YSt;2Rt)H52+Ts(YSt;2Lt)L52

wa has phenotype, non-suppressible by Ts(Y;3Lt)J1+Ts(YSt;3Rt)J162

wa has phenotype, non-suppressible by Ts(YSt;3Lt)B93+Ts(YSt;3Rt)B116

wa has phenotype, non-suppressible by Ts(YLt;3Rt)B93+Ts(YLt;3Lt)D100

wa has phenotype, non-suppressible by Ts(YLt;3Rt)B93+Ts(YLt;3Lt)G73

wa has phenotype, non-suppressible by mod(mdg4)ul

wa has phenotype, non-suppressible by su(Hw)2

Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

wa/we(g) is an enhancer of pigment cell phenotype of g53d

wa/we(g) is an enhancer of pigment cell phenotype of g2

wa/we(g) is an enhancer of pigment cell phenotype of g50e

Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

wa/Low1 is a suppressor of phenotype of z1

Other
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

The addition of Inr-aEMS2/+ or Df(2R)Pdel-1/+ darkens the eye colour of wa flies.

The addition of Dp(2;2)Pdup-3/+ lightens the eye colour of wa flies.

wocD1 does not suppress the eye colour phenotype seen in wa mutant flies.

Eye colour: the eye pigmentation level of wa flies is not affected by BEAF-32AB-KO.

Flies with a wa/we(g) mutant genotype enhance the eye colour defective phenotype of g2, g50e and g53d homozygous mutants leading to a greater reduction of red pigment in the eye. wa, g53d male mutants have lower amounts of pigment in the eye than wa single mutants, leading to a change in eye colour from dull orange-red to completely white.

Eye phenotype is suppressed by Ufo1.

Shows mosaic suppression by In(3)Msu1/+ or In(3)Msu2/+: eyes have a mottled stripe of brilliant red at the posterior.

Strength of enhancement: su(f)1 > su(f)12 > su(f)8 > su(f)4.

Eye colour: white in za parX1122 wa heterozygotes.

w1 su(f)4/wa su(f)1 females have a w1 phenotype at 24-25oC. wa su(f)4/Y males have an eye colour intermediate between that of w1 and wa at 17-18oC. wa su(f)1 flies have apricot coloured eyes at 29-30oC, at 24-25oC the eyes are near white and at 17-18oC the eyes are indistinguishable from white.

mw1 dilutes, in a variegated fashion, the phenotype of wa.

Eye colour: wa rb66a flies have white eyes with a slight yellow tinge.

Eye colour: white in wa su(f)1.

Eye colour: lighter than either mutation alone with z1.

Heterozygote with homozygous v1 has slightly lighter eye colour than wild-type.

Eye colour: lighter with bw1. Eye colour: light pinkish yellow with st1. Eye colour: not modified by v1.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference
Complementation and Rescue Data
Complements
Partially complements
Comments
Images (2)
Stocks (167)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer

Huestis, 1923.

Comments
Comments

Placed on the genetic map of w to the right of wbf and the left of wch. Deficiencies and duplications for wa can be produced as a result of nonhomologous exchanges within the w region.

waM allele derived as partial revertant of wa.

The copia element itself, not simply the physical interruption of the w gene, is essential for the wa phenotype and its response to the genetic modifiers su(wa), su(f), or E(wa).

The effect of combining any two mutations that modify the expression of wa is additive. If mutations at two loci suppressing wa, such as Doa and su(wa), are combined then the double mutant is darker (more wild type) than either mutation alone. The opposite applies to two mutations enhancing wa, such as mw and E(wa). A combination of suppressor and enhancer yields a colour similar to the original wa phenotype depending on their relative strengths.

The distribution of ry protein in the tissues of the adult fly is altered in this mutant.

copia element requires distant upstream sequences for polyadenylation. Dominant modifiers of wa pigmentation level have been isolated in an EMS screen.

Dosage compensation allele.

wa57i allele derived as partial revertant of wa.

Modulation of wa by Inr-b1 is at the level of transcription of the copia element.

Dosage compensation is not affected by su(Hw)V.

External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 3 )
Crossreferences
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (5)
Reported As
Name Synonyms
white-apricot
Secondary FlyBase IDs
    References (121)