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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ds38k
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0028156
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Key Links
Allele class
Mutagen
Nature of the Allele
Allele class
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference

No mutation has been detected in the coding exons.

Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease-implicated variant(s)
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

The wings of ds38k/ds36D transheterozygotes are smaller and rounder than in controls, and have vein and hair patterning defects.

In the third instar larval fat body of ds38k homozygotes, cells have altered morphology and their mitochondria are smaller and less abundant than in controls.

dsUAO71/ds38k flies have abnormally shaped wings, but wing area is not much altered compared to controls. The flies have a planar polarity phenotype in the wing.

Flies expressing dsAct5C.T:Avic\GFP-EGFP in a dsUAO71/ds38k background show a reduction in wing area compared to wild type.

Flies expressing dsSAx3.Act5C.T:Avic\GFP-EGFP in a dsUAO71/ds38k background show a reduction in wing area compared to wild type.

ds38k/dsUAO71 wings show a planar cell polarity phenotype; reverse orientation and swirling of wing hairs is seen in the proximal region of the wing with high penetrance.

ds38k/dsUAO71 animals show defects in the directional preferences of growing microtubules in mutant wing cells compared to wild type; growing microtubules fail to converge along the proximodistal axis as strongly as in wild type. The distally biased asymmetry of microtubule growth that is seen in the wild-type is substantially weakened in the mutant at the anterior crossvein and at the L3-1 location (position of the most proximal dorsal campaniform sensillum on vein L3) at 24 hours after puparium formation (APF). In addition, plus end-proximal microtubules are more abundant at the L3-3 location (position of the most distal dorsal campaniform sensillum on vein L3) in the mutants at 24 hours APF (microtubule polarity is symmetrical at this position in wild-type flies at this stage).

In approximately 5% of ds38k homozygous escapers the wing is replaced by a winglet and, posterior to it, a lateral protuberance that looks like an scutum and scutellum. The winglet is composed of proximal anterior structures arranged in a mirror-image duplication. The smallest examples of these winglets consist of a mirror image duplication of anterior hinge structures - the tegula and humeral sclerite. Larger examples also have a rudimentary wing blade consisting of a mirror image duplication of anterior structures - the costa and anterior wing margin. This phenotype is also seen occasionally in ds38k/ds33k flies (3 out of 72 heminota), ds38k/ds05142 (approximately 2% of heminota) and ds38k/dsUAO71. In late third instar discs of ds38k homozygotes with a reduced wing pouch, marker expression indicates that the pouch is entirely within the anterior compartment. This absence of posterior cells in the wing territory can be seen as early as the mid second instar. ds38k/ds1 flies have legs with reduced segment size and fusion of the tarsal segments and partial elimination of the tarsal joints.

ds38k/dsUAO71 flies have disorganised ommatidial polarity; no obvious equator is present. Flies expressing dsScer\UAS.P\T.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PL in a ds38k/dsUAO71 background have a normal overall pattern of polarisation in the eye; an equator can easily be discerned. 97.6% of ommatidia are correctly constructed and rotated in these animals. Expression of dsScer\UAS.P\T.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4fj-VG1 in a ds38k/dsUAO71 background results in eyes with disorganised ommatidial polarity.

When homozygous somatic clones are made in the eye, approximately 29% of ommatidia display dorsal ventral inversions, while fewer than 1% of genetically mutant ommatidia display anterior posterior inversions. Inverted equators also occur in 83% of clones. These arise along the equatorial border of the clone rather than within the clone. Also ectopic equators are seen, albeit rarely. In homozygous mutant eyes (generated by mitotic recombination using the "EGUF/hid method"), 31% of ommatidia display dorsal ventral inversions. The endogenous equator is stil evident. When ommatidia are examined that are mosaic (with respect to ds38k) in the pair of photoreceptor cells, R3 and R4, 77% of the time the mutant cell is R3 and the wild-type cell R4. When the pair R2 and R5 are examined, 65% of the time the mutant cell is R2 and the wild-type cell R5. When the pair R1 and R6 are examined, 73% of the time the mutant cell is R1 and the wild-type cell R6.

The dorsal-ventral polarity of ommatidia in ds38k/dsUAO71 flies is partially randomised. Defects in anterior-posterior ommatidial polarity or rotation are not seen. Somatic clones of ds38k in the eye: about 45% of ommatidia inverted on their dorsoventral axes. The clones also show directional nonautonomy, with most ommatidia on the equatorial boundary being inverted (78% in total), but few ommatidia being inverted on the polar boundary (10% total).

The eyes of dsUAO71/ds38k escapers have eyes with ommatidia that randomly adopt either dorsal or ventral polarity.

ds38k clones in a M(2)24F1 background are large like the controls, but cell density is increased. In ds38k,ftk07918 clones only epistatic effects of ftk07918 are seen.

40% eclosion rate. In addition to 100% penetrant defects in leg, wing and thorax, rough patches in the eye appear at low frequency. Anterior crossvein is displaced posteriorly. Legs are stubby with a reduced number of tarsal joints. There are duplicated bristles on the notum and the wings are held out stiffly with duplicated crossveins. Flies have difficulty walking, cannot jump or fly, do not reproduce and die within a few days of eclosion.

ds38k/ds1 flies have an extreme ds phenotype.

ds38k/ds1 has close crossveins; fly short and thick bodied. Homozygote probably like dsd. RK2.

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Suppressed by
Statement
Reference
Enhancer of
Statement
Reference
NOT Enhancer of
Statement
Reference
NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference
Other
Phenotype Manifest In
Suppressed by
Statement
Reference
Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

ds38k/ds[+] is an enhancer of ommatidium phenotype of Scer\GAL4hs.2sev, dgoUAS.cFa

ds38k/ds[+] is an enhancer of crossvein phenotype of fjd1

ds38k/ds[+] is an enhancer of wing phenotype of fjd1

ds38k/ds[+] is an enhancer of crossvein phenotype of fjt14.Tag:Golgi(hGALNT3)

ds38k/ds[+] is an enhancer of wing phenotype of fjt14.Tag:Golgi(hGALNT3)

NOT Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

ds38k/dsUAO71 is a non-enhancer of wing hair phenotype of d1/dGC13

ds38k/dsUAO71 is a non-enhancer of wing | proximal phenotype of d1/dGC13

ds38k/ds[+] is a non-enhancer of wing hair phenotype of Scer\GAL4hs.2sev, dgoUAS.cFa

NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

ds38k/dsUAO71 is a non-suppressor of wing | proximal phenotype of d1/dGC13

ds38k/dsUAO71 is a non-suppressor of wing hair phenotype of d1/dGC13

ds38k/ds[+] is a non-suppressor of wing hair phenotype of Scer\GAL4hs.2sev, dgoUAS.cFa

Other
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

ds38k/+ enhances the ommatidial rotation defects induced by the overexpression of dgoScer\UAS.cFa under the control of Scer\GAL4hs.2sev.

Adding fjp1/fjd1 has little effect on the wing area of dsUAO71/ds38k flies.

Adding fjp1/fjd1 dramatically reduces the wing area of flies expressing dsAct5C.T:Avic\GFP-EGFP in a dsUAO71/ds38k background.

Adding fjp1/fjd1 has no effect on the wing area of flies expressing dsSAx3.Act5C.T:Avic\GFP-EGFP in a dsUAO71/ds38k background.

Adding fjp1/fjd1 has no effect on the wing area of flies expressing dsSDx3.Act5C.T:Avic\GFP-EGFP in a dsUAO71/ds38k background.

wgl-12.Scer\UAS; Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1 suppresses duplication of the wing pouch and prospective notum in ds38k homozygous wing discs, although the hinge domain is expanded compared with the wild type. Normal anterior-posterior subdivision is also restored in these discs. These animals die before reaching adulthood. dppScer\UAS.cCa; Scer\GAL4bi-omb-Gal4 does not suppress duplication of the wing pouch and prospective notum in ds38k homozygous wing discs. However, the resulting discs have an expanded, rather than a reduced wing pouch, and anterior-posterior subdivision of the wing pouch is restored. nkd2/+ partially suppresses the leg phenotype of ds38k/ds1 flies: tarsal joint formation is completely rescued and the size of the tarsal segments is recovered almost to that of wild type.

ds38k fjN7/dsUAO71 fjd1 flies have disorganised ommatidial polarity; no obvious equator is present. Flies expressing both fjScer\UAS.cZa and dsScer\UAS.P\T.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PL in a ds38k fjN7/dsUAO71 fjd1 background have a disorganised ommatidial polarity; no obvious equator is present. Flies expressing dsScer\UAS.P\T.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PL in a ds38k fjN7/dsUAO71 fjd1 background have a disorganised ommatidial polarity; no obvious equator is present. Flies expressing fjScer\UAS.cZa under the control of Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PL in a ds38k fjN7/dsUAO71 fjd1 background have a disorganised ommatidial polarity; no obvious equator is present. Flies expressing dsScer\UAS.P\T.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4fj-VG1 in a dsUAO71 fjVG1/ds38k fjN7 background have a disorganised ommatidial polarity; the eye contains a clearly perceptible equator in which most of the nearby ommatidia are reversed in polarity and thus point away from the equator. Flies expressing both fjScer\UAS.cZa and dsScer\UAS.P\T.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PL in a ds38k fjN7/dsUAO71 fjd1 background have normal polarity throughout the wing blade with the exception of a small region along the anterior proximal margin of the wing, where a small swirl is often present. Flies expressing dsScer\UAS.P\T.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PL in a ds38k fjN7/dsUAO71 fjd1 background have normal polarity throughout the wing blade with the exception of a small region along the anterior proximal margin of the wing, where a small swirl is often present.

The wing shortening phenotype of fjd1 homozygotes is enhanced by ds38k/+. Reduction in the distance between anterior and posterior cross-veins in fjt14.T:Hsap\GALNT3 flies is enhanced by ds38k/+. Like ds38k/dsUAO71 flies, ds38k/dsUAO71; fj109-583.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\GALNT3 ; Scer\GAL4bi-omb-Gal4 flies have inverted ommatidia scattered throughout their eyes.

Wing discs from l(2)gd11, ds38k double mutants are large and have variable morphology, often with a series of frill-like folds on the edges of the discs. Leg discs are larger and thicker than for l(2)gd11 alone. The haltere disc duplicates, triplicates or quadruplicates. The eye antenna disc shows a pair of knob-like structures in the anterior of the antenna field that probably represent presumptive antennae. Animals usually die in the larval or early pupal stage, and never reach the pharate adult stage. Clones double mutant for l(2)gd11 and ds38k form protrusions due to abnormal morphogenesis that might result from an excess of cells. Imaginal discs from ds38k l(2)gd11/l(2)gd11 larvae resemble those of ft8 l(2)gd11/l(2)gd11 rather than l(2)gd11/l(2)gd11 in that wing, haltere, second and third leg discs are duplicated.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference
Complementation and Rescue Data
Fails to complement
Partially rescued by
Comments

Instead of rescuing the wing defects of ds38k/ds36D transheterozygotes, the Scer\GAL4hh.PU-driven expression of either dsScer\UAS.cTa or dsintra.Scer\UAS.T:SV5\V5 leads to high lethality during early pupal stages and even enhances the wing defects in surviving adults.

The expression of dsex.Scer\UAS.T:Avic\GFP driven by Scer\GAL4hh.PU does not rescue the wing defects observed in ds38k/ds36D transheterozygotes.

The planar polarity defects seen in the wings of dsUAO71/ds38k animals are almost completely rescued by dsAct5C.T:Avic\GFP-EGFP.

Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (2)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer

Waddington, Nov. 1938.

Waddington, 1938

Arose in: a ssa stock.

External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (3)
References (25)