Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\chico1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0031303
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
chico1, fs(2)41
Nature of the Allele
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference

P{ry11} is inserted 80bp downstream of the putative translation initiation site in the PH domain.

P{ry11} is inserted into, and in the same orientation as, the chico transcription unit.

Insertion components
P{ry11}chico1
Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

While chico1/chicoKG00032 females produce similar amount of eggs as controls, ovaries show decreased mtDNA replication in region 2B and 3 cysts, and eggs show severely decreased levels of mtDNA.

chico1 mutant flies show decreased learning index in a behavioral olfactory learning assay (measuring 3 min memory) compared to controls.

chico1 homozygotes display decreased number of Kenyon cell in the brain compared to controls.

chico1 mutant salivary gland cells exhibit wild-type endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi organisation.

chico1/+ mutants do not exhibit any significant difference in the number of dopaminergic neurons in newly eclosed adult males, and these flies do not display any significant reduction in climbing ability.

Homozygous and chico1/chicoflp147E adults show normal odour and electric shock reactivity.

Homozygous and chico1/chicoflp147E adults show significant impairment in 3 minute, 1 hour and 3 hour memory after olfactory aversive conditioning. Analysis using a short-duration training protocol indicates that the defect appears to be in the initial learning, since after normalising 3 minute memory in chico1 and wild-type flies, subsequent memory decay is indistinguishable in the two genotypes.

The brains of homozygous flies are significantly smaller than normal, with a significant reduction in the number of Kenyon cells and in the size of the mushroom bodies.

Mutant flies have a significantly reduced body size compared to controls. Wing cell size is reduced compared to controls.

Heterozygous females show an extension of median lifespan compared to wild-type controls. These females show accelerated accumulation of cytosolic hydrogen peroxide in the gut compared to wild-type controls.

Heterozygous males do not show an extension of median lifespan compared to wild-type controls. These males show a delayed accumulation of cytosolic hydrogen peroxide in the gut compared to wild-type controls.

Homozygous chico1 mutant adult flies have a reduced body weight compared to heterozygous controls. Wing area is also reduced compared to controls.

Lipid content is increased in homozygous chico1 mutant flies compared to controls. Carbohydrate content is similar to controls.

Homozygous chico1 mutant flies exhibit defective electroretinogram (ERG) readings.

Cholinesterase activity is significantly reduced in homozygous chico1 mutant flies compared to controls.

The frequency of proliferating cells in the intestine of aging chico1 homozygotes is significantly lower than that of age-matched controls.

Heterozygous flies show increased resistance to dry starvation compared to control flies.

The length of the dorsal hemisegments along the antero-posterior axis in chico1 mutant larvae is only 10% of that of wild-types.

In a fed state, chico1 flies are anoxia tolerant (heterozygotes are not).

chico1/chicoflp147E flies have elevated levels of lipids compared to control flies.

Heterozygous ovaries transplanted into homozygous females usually show a robust vitellogenic response, with vitellogenic oocytes spanning the entire range of stage 8 to mature stage 14 eggs being seen in the transplanted ovaries. In all cases, the oocytes of the homozygous host female terminate development at the previtellogenic stage 7.

Homozygous ovaries transplanted into heterozygous or wild-type females fail to develop oocytes beyond stage 7, even though the host ovaries become fully vitellogenic in each recipient female.

Methoprene does not stimulate vitellogenesis or egg production in homozygous females.

On day 1 post-eclosion, homozygous females contain an average of 11.2 nurse cells per egg chamber, and on day 4 they have an average of 14.8 nurse cells per egg chamber (a statistically significant difference).

chico1 mutants show a reduction in wing size compared to wild-type controls. However, this phenotype is not temperature sensitive as chico1 flies raised at 25oC show a similar decrease in wing area compared to chico1 flies raised at 18oC to the decrease in wing area observed for control flies at these two temperatures.

Males that carry chico1 Minute clones throughout one side of the genitals and are heterozygous for chico1 on the other side show smaller genital arches on the homozygous clone side than on the heterozygous side. The difference in size is 16%. Maxillary palps consisting of chico1 homozygous clones are 45% smaller than paired palps on the same male.

chico1 homozygous adults are abnormally small and have reduced numbers of ommatidia per eye.

chico1 homozygous mutants are small, weighing on average 44% of the mass of wild-types. Mean oxygen consumption is not significantly higher than in wild-type flies. Mass-specific resting heat production is the same in chico1 mutants as wild-type flies. Dietary-restriction of chico1 mutants has no effect on resting heat production. While the body mass of wild-type flies fed on an energy restricted medium is reduced, chico1 mutants show no decrease in body mass.

chico1 flies are small and live ~50% longer than wild-type flies. These flies have low rates of pacing-induced heart failure and arrest, and their heart beat frequency does not increase with age, compared to wild-type flies. chico1/+ flies have lifespans that are longer than wild-type flies, but shorter than chico1 homozygotes. Like wild-type flies, these chico1/+ flies experience stress-induced heart failure and their heart beat frequency decreases with age. There is no difference between male or female flies for any of the heart functions tested in homozygous or heterozygous chico1 flies.

chico1/chicoflp147E flies show lower body weight, fewer ommatidia, smaller wings, fewer cells per wing and smaller wing cell area than wild type.

Photoreceptor cell projection patterns are indistinguishable from wild type in homozygous larvae and in mosaic larvae in which homozygous clones have been induced in the eye. The pattern of R7 and R8 projections in the medulla is similar to wild type in mosaic adults in which homozygous clones have been induced in the eye. Heterozygotes have normal photoreceptor cell projections in the medulla.

The relation between life-span and food concentration is right-shifted in chico1 females compared to controls. Control and chico1 females show similar peak life-spans under dietary restriction, but chico1 females show a peak in mean lifespan at a food concentration 0.8 times that of normal, while control females show a peak in mean lifespan at a food concentration 0.65 times that of normal.

chico1 adults are resistant to starvation conditions compared to wild type.

Homozygous adults are dwarf in size. Homozygous females show an increase of median and maximum life-span of up to 48 and 41% respectively compared to controls. Homozygous males are slightly short-lived. Heterozygous females and males show an increase in median life-span of up to 36 and 13% respectively. Heterozygous females have reduced fecundity and homozygotes are almost sterile. Mutant flies show no resistance to heat stress at 37oC. Slight resistance to oxidative stress (methyl viologen) is seen in heterozygotes but not in homozygotes. Heterozygotes and homozygotes show some resistance to starvation.

The chico1 mutation partially impaired the ability of follicle cells to proliferate faster in the presence of abundant nutrients. Egg chambers do not develop beyond vitellogenic stages in homozygotes, even in the presence of abundant food.

chico1 flies do not show unexpanded wings, are not dark and do not show male sterility.

Homozygous clones are not visible in the adult eye because they are out-competed by heterozygous cells.

Homozygosity for chico1 causes semilethality and an overall delay in development. Flies eclose 2-3 days after their heterozygous siblings. In non-crowded culture conditions, homozygous mutant mothers can produce few viable progeny lacking both maternal and zygotic chico function. Homozygotes have a drastic weight reduction (65% in females, 55% in males) compared to wild-type. Body size reduction is observed at all developmental stages but does not alter the overall proportions of the flies. Homozygous clones in the eye produce morphologically normal ommatidia, except that they are more than 50% smaller than wild-type. Otherwise normal ommatidia with both smaller mutant and larger wild-type photoreceptors are observed at the edges of clones, indicating that chico acts cell autonomously. Autonomy of cell size control is also observed in mutant clones in the wing. Selective removal of chico1 function in the eye imaginal disc cells generates flies with a strongly reduced head capsule and reduced eyes, whereas the proboscis and the rest of the body are of wild type size. Homozygous mutant clones in the adult eye are rarer, more variable in size and on average smaller than their wild-type sister clones. Clones are more frequently observed in the anterior half of the eye around the equator. In the eye disc, clones are also more variable in size and on average smaller than their wild-type sister clones. TUNEL analysis shows no increase in apoptotic cells in homozygous clones. Clones produced in a Minute background do not reveal enhanced apoptosis compared to wild type clones, or any increase in morphological signs of programmed cell death, in either the imaginal discs or the adult eye. No significant difference is seen in the apoptotic sub-G1 fraction of homozygous mutant cells compared to heterozygous cells.

Mutant flies develop slower than sibling controls and have a reduced body size. chico mutant cells differentiate normally but are significantly reduced in size.

male fertility poor female-sterile

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference
NOT Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

chico1 has long lived | dominant phenotype, non-enhanceable by ovoD1

Suppressed by
NOT suppressed by
Statement
Reference

chico1 has small body phenotype, non-suppressible by PRAS40KO

chicoflp147E/chico1 has decreased cell size phenotype, non-suppressible by foxo21/foxo[+]

NOT Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

chico1/chico[+] is a non-enhancer of long lived | RU486 conditional phenotype of Scer\GAL4Switch1.106, aopACT.UAS

chico1/chico[+] is a non-enhancer of size defective | adult stage phenotype of sl2

chico1 is a non-enhancer of visible phenotype of upd1GMR.PB

chico1 is a non-enhancer of long lived | dominant phenotype of ovoD1

Suppressor of
NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

chico1/chico[+] is a non-suppressor of short lived | RU486 conditional phenotype of Ras85DV12.cUa.UAS, Scer\GAL4da.Switch.PT

chico1/chico[+] is a non-suppressor of short lived | RU486 conditional phenotype of Scer\GAL4da.Switch.PT, aopHMS01256

chico1/chico[+] is a non-suppressor of short lived | RU486 conditional phenotype of Scer\GAL4da.Switch.PT, pntP1.UAS

chico1/chico[+] is a non-suppressor of short lived phenotype of foxoΔ94

chico1/chico[+] is a non-suppressor of locomotor behavior defective | adult stage phenotype of PgiEY09730

chico1/chico[+] is a non-suppressor of starvation stress response defective | adult stage | RU486 conditional phenotype of Scer\GAL4Switch1.106, Sirt1GD11580

chico1/chico[+] is a non-suppressor of large body phenotype of Scer\GAL429BD, dallysec.UAS.Tag:MYC

chico1 is a non-suppressor of lethal | pupal stage phenotype of Cskj1D8/CskS030003

chico1 is a non-suppressor of visible phenotype of upd1GMR.PB

Other
Phenotype Manifest In
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference
Suppressed by
Statement
Reference

chico1 has ommatidium phenotype, suppressible by B4susi-1

chico1 has ommatidium phenotype, suppressible by B405337

chicoflp147E/chico1 has wing phenotype, suppressible by foxo25/foxo21

chicoflp147E/chico1 has ommatidium phenotype, suppressible by foxo21/foxo[+]

chicoflp147E/chico1 has wing phenotype, suppressible by foxo21/foxo[+]

NOT suppressed by
Statement
Reference

chicoflp147E/chico1 has ommatidium phenotype, non-suppressible by foxo21/foxo[+]

Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

chico1/chico[+] is an enhancer of eye phenotype of PtenUAS.cHa, Scer\GAL4ey.PH

chico1/chico[+] is an enhancer of ommatidium phenotype of PtenUAS.cHa, Scer\GAL4ey.PH

chico1/chico[+] is an enhancer of eye disc phenotype of PtenUAS.cHa, Scer\GAL4ey.PH

NOT Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

chico1/chico[+] is a non-enhancer of wing blade phenotype of sl2

chico1/chico[+] is a non-enhancer of wing vein | ectopic phenotype of sl2

chico1 is a non-enhancer of eye phenotype of upd1GMR.PB

Suppressor of
Statement
Reference
NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

chico1/chico[+] is a non-suppressor of pupa phenotype of Scer\GAL429BD, dallysec.UAS.Tag:MYC

chico1/chico[+] is a non-suppressor of wing phenotype of Scer\GAL429BD, dallysec.UAS.Tag:MYC

chico1 is a non-suppressor of eye phenotype of upd1GMR.PB

Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

The decreased learning index in a behavioral olfactory learning assay (measuring 3 min memory) observed in chico1 mutant adults is restored to wild-type level by expression of rutScer\UAS.cUa under the control of Scer\GAL4ey-OK107 and significantly increased by expression under the Scer\GAL4Mef2.247.Switch driver in animals fed RU486 (to activate expression) compared to controls.

The decreased number of Kenyon cells seen in chico1 homozygote brains cannot be restored by expression of rutScer\UAS.cUa under the control of Scer\GAL4ey-OK107 in the mutant background.

chico1/+ fails to suppress the climbing defects seen in PgiEY09730/+ mutants.

chico1/chico1 ; mir-277Ubi-p63E.PZ results in synthetic lethality.

The reduced survival upon starvation characteristic for flies expressing Sirt1GD11580 under the control of Scer\GAL4Switch1.106 (and keeping the flies on medium containing RU486 to induce the expression) cannot be suppressed by combination with a single copy of chico1 (even though without the induction of Sirt1GD11580 expression by RU486 the Sirt1GD11580;Scer\GAL4[Switch1.106],chico1/+ flies live longer than the uninduced Sirt1GD11580;Scer\GAL4Switch1.106-only flies).

PRAS40KO completely rescues the sterility of chico1 females, but does not suppress the reduced body and wing cell size of chico1 flies.

One copy of chico1 does not enhance the reduction in wing blade area seen in homozygous sl2 males.

One copy of chico1 does not enhance the ectopic wing vein phenotype seen in sl2 homozygotes.

One copy of chico1 partially suppresses the percentage of sl2 mutant ommatidia that contain extra R7 photoreceptors.

Expression of NLazScer\UAS.cHTa under the control of Scer\GAL4ppl.PP can not further increase the starvation resistance of chico1/+ flies.

Dg323/chico1 double heterozygous mutant third instar larval eye discs do not show disrupted axon targeting from photoreceptor neurons to the brain optic lobes.

chico1/+; dallysec.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC/Scer\GAL429BD pupae show the same large pupae and disordered wing patterning phenotype as wild-type animals expressing dallysec.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC under the control of Scer\GAL429BD.

The small body size and reduced numbers of ommatidia seen in chico1 homozygous adults are partially suppressed by B4susi-1/B4susi-1. The eye phenotype is also partially suppressed by B405337/B405337

Homozygous chico;foxo double mutants have more, and even slightly smaller, cells than homozygous chico single mutants.

No obvious defects in photoreceptor axon projections in the medulla are seen in chico1/+ ; InRex15/+ double heterozygous adults.

ovoD1 chico1 double heterozygotes live as long as chico1/+ single heterozygotes and significantly longer than ovoD1/+ single heterozygotes.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

Expression of Hsap\SNCAScer\UAS.cFa under the control of Scer\GAL4ple.PF in chico1/+ mutants does not lead to any significant difference in the number of dopaminergic neurons in newly eclosed adult males, but chico1/+ suppresses the dopaminergic neuron loss seen in 20 day old flies expressing Hsap\SNCAScer\UAS.cFa under the control of Scer\GAL4ple.PF.

Complementation and Rescue Data
Partially rescued by
Comments

Expression of chico+t5.6 fully restores several phenotypic defects associated with chico1, including developmental delay, reduced growth, female sterility and increased glycogen and lipid storage.

Expression of chico+t5.6 restores the increased lifespan seen in chico1 heterozygotes to that of wild type flies.

Expression of chicoGrb2mutant fully restores several phenotypic defects associated with chico1, including developmental delay, reduced growth, female sterility and increased glycogen and lipid storage.

Expression of chicoGrb2mutant is unable to restores the increased lifespan seen in chico1 heterozygotes to that of wild type flies.

Expression of chicoGrb2mutant does not rescue the phenotypic defects associated with chico1.

Expression of chicoGrb2mutant is unable to restores the increased lifespan seen in chico1 heterozygotes to that of wild type flies.

Expression of chicoScer\UAS.cNa under the control of Scer\GAL4elav.PLu rescues the defects in 1 hour memory seen after olfactory aversive conditioning in chico1 adults.

Expression of chicoScer\UAS.cNa limited to the adult stage (driven by Scer\GAL4elav.Switch.PO in the presence of RU486) does not rescue the defects in 1 hour memory seen after olfactory aversive conditioning in chico1 adults.

Expression of chicoScer\UAS.cNa under the control of Scer\GAL4ey-OK107 rescues the number of Kenyon cells and partially rescues reduced mushroom body size in chico1 adults. Olfactory learning is rescued in these flies.

Expression of chicoScer\UAS.cNa under the control of Scer\GAL4c309, but not under the control of Scer\GAL4GH146, rescues olfactory learning in chico1 adults.

chico+t8 significantly reduces the extended life-span seen in chico1 heterozygous males and females.

Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (1)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer

A. Spradling.

Comments
Comments

Designation as "flpry4" was a symbol misassignment.

External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (12)
References (84)