Homozygous clones in the retina show progressive loss of photoreceptor cells in the adult. This defect is cell-autonomous. Significantly greater photoreceptor loss is seen in flies reared in normal light conditions compared to those reared in complete darkness.
The amplitude of the electroretinogram is increased in 8 day old adults containing homozygous retinas compared to that of control flies.
Heterozygous flies have significantly increased triglyceride and glycogen levels compared to age-matched control flies. Free fatty acid levels in the circulating hemolymph are significantly increased in heterozygous males compared to wild type.
Heterozygous flies show a significantly reduced feeding rate compared to controls.
Heterozygous females show an increase in lifespan compared to controls in two or three genetic backgrounds tested.
Heterozygous males and females aged on high-yeast or high-fatty acid (palmitic acid) diets live longer than controls.
Heterozygous males show significantly increased resistance to chronic heat stress (28[o]C) compared to controls. Heterozygous females, but not heterozygous males show significantly increased resistance to cold stress (4[o]C) compared to controls.
Heterozygous males and females show significantly increased resistance to oxidative stress (paraquat) compared to controls.
Heterozygous males and females show significantly increased resistance to starvation conditions compared to controls.
The rate of cardiac failure in response to pacing stress is significantly higher across ages in heterozygous adults compared to controls. The frequency of the heart rate is increased across ages in heterozygous flies compared to controls, and the mutant hearts show a reduction in fractional shortening.
Heterozygous flies show a significantly slower age-related decline in negative geotaxis ability compared to controls. Heterozygous males show a significant degree of improvement in negative geotaxis following a 3-week training period of endurance exercise, with the improvement being similar in magnitude to wild type.
The increased triglyceride levels seen in heterozygous flies are somewhat reduced by exercise training, although not to wild-type levels. The reduced feeding rate of heterozygous flies is unaffected by exercise. Exercise training of heterozygous flies results in a significant rescue of the fractional shortening defect of the heart, and the increased frequency of the heart rate seen in the mutant flies is also reduced.
Homozygous clones in the retina show loss of photoreceptor cells.