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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\cryb
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
baby
FlyBase ID
FBal0094552
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Key Links
Nature of the Allele
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
Nucleotide change:

G19214725A

Reported nucleotide change:

G?A

Amino acid change:

D410N | cry-PA

Reported amino acid change:

D410N

Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference

Amino acid replacement: D410N. D410 is highly conserved among class I photolyases as well as blue light cryptochrome photoreceptors.

Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease-implicated variant(s)
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

Similarly to controls, cryb homozygous adults are able to maintain a rhythmic behavior under constant darkness conditions after previous training in 12h:12h light:dark cycles.

The increased amount of sleep normally seen in young flies is still observed in cryb mutants.

Total sleep at nighttime and daytime is significantly decreased in cryb mutants compared with wild-type. This is caused mainly by sleep episode duration.

Following a 6 hour delay in their light-dark cycle, cryb flies need 3-5 days to resynchronize their evening activity peak, compared to 1 day for wild type.

cryb flies synchronize quickly to a 6-hour advancement in their light-dark cycle, similar to wild type.

While naive wild-type flies display a magnetic field avoidance behaviour, reward-trained flies show a preference. However, cryb mutants do not respond to magnetic field.

Homozygous cryb mutants show short circadian free-running periods under blue light. After experimental exposure to a 300 microT magnetic field, the majority of the cryb mutants do not show any period changes, or if changes occur, the changes are significantly smaller than those in wild-type flies.

Approximately 85% of mutant flies are rhythmic for locomotor activity under constant light conditions (in contrast to wild-type flies, which are arrhythmic under these conditions), with a period of 25.4 hours.

Homozygous cryb flies do not show a naive or trained response to a magnetic field under full-spectrum light conditions. Heterozygous cryb/Canton-S flies show a significant naive and trained response under the same conditions, but the response is reduced compared to Canton-S controls.

Transheterozygous cryb/cry01 flies do not show significant naive or trained responses to a magnetic field.

In contrast to wild-type, circadian phase does not shift in response to a light pulse in cryb mutants.

cryb flies can synchronise to dim-light/dark cycles.

Once synchronised under light/dark conditions, cryb flies exposed to light/moonlight cycles delay their morning and evening activity peaks in the same manner as wildtype flies.

After entrainment by LD cycles, cryb flies emerge rhythmically under constant darkness conditions with periodicity similar to controls. Under constant light conditions (which cause wild-type animals to eclose arrhythmically) the mutant flies eclose rhythmically and the period is similar to that seen in animals emerging in constant darkness.

In contrast to wild-type flies, cryb mutants display robust activity rhythms and no split rhythms can be observed under constant light conditions.

100% of cryb flies show rhythmic locomotor activity under constant light conditions, in contrast to wild-type flies, which are uniformly arrhythmic under these conditions.

cryb adult flies have normal locomotor rhythms in constant darkness.

cryb mutants show anomalous behavioral rhythmicity when kept in constant light.

Under LD conditions cryb flies exhibit the typical bimodal activity pattern consisting of M and E activity bouts, as in wild-type. After transfer into LL, the M activity bout becomes invisible. Thus, the activity changes from bimodal to unimodal with one major activity bout corresponding to the E peak. After a few days in LL, the E activity bout shows internal desynchronisation into two activity components with short and long periods, respectively. On the fifth day in LL, both components are 12 hours out-of-phase with each other, and, after 11 days, they are in-phase again.

cryb mutants exhibit a wild-type clock-controlled evening locomotor activity. Light pulses have no significant effect on the timing of the locomotor activity peak in cryb, reflecting the defect in cryb photoreception. The timing of evening activity in cryb mutant flies, as in wild-type, falls away from the `lights off' signal with increasing lengths of light-dark cycles.

cryb mutant larvae show no significant differences from wild-type larvae in larval light avoidance assays. cryb mutants, like wild-type larvae, display circadian modulation of photophobic behaviour.

Flies carrying the cryb mutation exhibit very low light sensitivity. They show almost no phase shift in response to a light pulse at night.

Mutant flies show little or no change in circadian behavioural phase in response to brief pulses of illumination at different times of the night (in contrast to wild-type flies which show phase delays in the early night and phase advances in the late night).

Under constant high levels of light, cryb flies remain synchronous and rhythmic for at least 7 days, showing a 24 hour activity period. cryb mutants exhibit a reduced phase-shift at ZT15 and ZT21 in response to a short light-pulse, compared to controls. cryb flies expressing cryScer\UAS.cDa, under the control of Scer\GAL4tim.PE generate a reduced phase-shift response to a short light-pulse. cryb flies expressing cryΔ5'.Scer\UAS.cDa, under the control of Scer\GAL4tim.PE generate a significantly enhanced phase shift response to a short light pulse, compared to cryb and control flies at ZT15, but are essentially unresponsive at ZT21.

cryb flies show rhythmicity when kept in constant light conditions; when the intensity of this constant light is high (above 50 lux) the period of rhythmicity is longer in the cryb mutants than in wild-type flies.

The onset of the evening activity peak in mutant flies in 12 hour light:12 hour dark conditions is advanced compared to wild-type flies at both 18[o]C and 29[o]C.

cryb homozygous flies (genetic background = Canton-S) have a significantly increased geotaxis score compared to wild-type (Canton-S) flies.

Mutant flies can entrain and reentrain to 12 hour light-12 hour dark (LD) cycles. The evening peak requires an average of 7 days to adapt to the new LD regime, whereas the morning peak adapts quickly. Flies show 100% rhythmicity under LD conditions. Under constant light conditions of 100 lux adults remain rhythmic, and show a significant period lengthening, an increase in activity level and an increase in the time span between morning and evening locomotor activity peaks.

Electro-antennagram response to ethyl acetate shows loss of circadian activity on day 2 of constant darkness after light-dark entrainment. Local circadian oscillator shows loss of rhythm of bioluminesce from per and tim reporter constructs P{BG-luc} and P{tim-LUC.S}. Rhythmicity was detected in only 12% of cryb antennae when bioluminescence was measured in constant darkness. Similar effects were seen in isolated antennae. cryb also shows loss of circadian oscillations in EAG when kept in constant dark but subjected to temperature cycles - both during cycling and in constant temperature after entrainment cycling (under both of which conditions wild type flies show a robust rhythm in EAG response).

cryb flies entrain normally at 28oC under an light-dark (LD) 10:10 regime.

cryb flies remain behaviourally rhythmic in intense constant light, in contrast to wild-type flies which are arrhythmic under such conditions. The behaviour of cryb flies in intense constant light is strikingly similar to that of wild-type flies in constant darkness. There is no detectable lengthening of period (the period is 24.7 +/- 0.6 hours) in cryb flies under constant light conditions (compared to the period under constant-darkness conditions). pers; cryb flies show a 19.2 +/- 0.6 hour period in intense constant light.

cryb flies need on average 3 more days than wild-type flies do to adjust their evening peak to a new LD regime.

Poor synchronization to light-dark cycles in genetic backgrounds that cause external blindness or demand several hours of daily rhythm resets. Shows no response to brief light pulses. Flies are rhythmic in constant darkness. Does not exhibit phase shifts in response to 10 minute light pulses. Optomotor behavior is normal in tests involving freely walking movements in response to rotating vertical stripes.

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Enhanced by
NOT Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

cryb has abnormal locomotor rhythm phenotype, non-enhanceable by Rh61

cryb has abnormal locomotor rhythm phenotype, non-enhanceable by Rh52

cryb has abnormal locomotor rhythm phenotype, non-enhanceable by Pdf01

Suppressed by
Statement
Reference
NOT suppressed by
Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

cry[+]/cryb is an enhancer of abnormal locomotor rhythm phenotype of jetc/jet[+], timls

cry[+]/cryb is an enhancer of abnormal locomotor rhythm phenotype of jetc, timls/tim[+]

NOT Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

cryb is a non-enhancer of abnormal locomotor rhythm phenotype of Pdf01

Suppressor of
Other
Phenotype Manifest In
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

cryb has pacemaker neuron phenotype, enhanceable by eya1

Other
Statement
Reference
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

A significant proportion of cryb/cryb, Rh71/Rh71 adults or cryb/cry01, Rh71/Rh71 adults previously trained under 12h:12h light:dark cycles fail to maintain rhythmicity under constant darkness conditions, while the rhythmic individuals present a significantly longer period, as compared to controls. The defects of cryb, Rh71 double homozygotes to maintain circadian rhythmicity under constant darkness is partially suppressed by the following conditions: the presence of Rh7+tCH322-180G19; the expression of Rh7Scer\UAS.cNa under the control of either Scer\GAL4P2.4.Pdf or Scer\GAL4tim.PE; the expression of Rh7Scer\UAS.T:Zzzz\FLAG under the control of Scer\GAL4P2.4.Pdf; or the expression of Rh3Scer.UAS.cVa, Rh4Scer.UAS.cVa or Rh5Scer.UAS.cVa under the control of Scer\GAL4P2.4.Pdf.

Following a 6 hour delay in their light-dark cycle, cryb Rh52 flies and cryb Rh61 flies show a similar delay in resynchronizing their evening activity peak as cryb flies. Triple mutant cryb Rh52 Rh61 flies resynchronize over a longer period than either the cryb single or double mutants.

Following a 6 hour delay in their light-dark cycle, cryb norpA39 flies show a longer delay in resynchronizing their evening activity peak (5-7 days) compared to cryb flies. The addition of Rh52 or Rh61 to this background extends the time required for resynchronization to beyond 7 days. The addition of both Rh52 and Rh61 to the cryb norpA39 background results in minimal (if any) tendency to resynchronize circadian behaviour.

Following a 6 hour advancement in their light-dark cycle, cryb norpA39 flies show a longer delay in resynchronizing their circadian behaviour (several days) compared to either single mutant. Introducing either Rh52 or Rh61 to this background interferes more strongly with resynchronization, while the quadruple cryb norpA39 Rh52 Rh61 mutant shows the strongest phenotype.

ninaE17 cryb double mutants need more days to adapt to a new phase of green light (472-603nm) and Y-FL (475-724nm) compared to cryb single mutants.

A Rh61 mutant background does not affect the ability of cryb mutants to adapt to a new phase of green light (472-603nm) and Y-FL (475-724nm).

A Rh53 mutant background does not affect the ability of cryb mutants to adapt to a new phase of green light (472-603nm) and Y-FL (475-724nm).

The retrainment of ninaE17 Rh61 cryb to 6 hour delayed green light (472-603nm) and Y-FL (475-724nm) is significantly slower than that of ninaE17 cryb mutants. Indeed some flies do not adapt to the new photoperiod within 7 days.

ninaE17 Rh53 Rh61 cryb and ninaE17 Rh54 Rh61 cryb quadruple mutants are not retrained by green light (472-603nm) and Y-FL (475-724nm).

In contrast to wild-type animals, per01; ; cryb double mutants expressing Scer\GAL80Pdf.PS and Scer\GAL4Mai179 driven perScer\UAS.cBa display robust locomotor activity rhythms, with a long 25.7h period under constant light conditions.

Under constant darkness, cryb Pdf01 double mutants display locomotor rhythms that are similar to cryb mutants, but with a short 22.8h period. Conversely, cryb Pdf01 double mutants display locomotor rhythms that are similar to Pdf01 single mutants under constant darkness, with a fraction of the flies displaying a weak short-period rhythmicity as reported for Pdf01.

Flies expressing sggEP1576 under the control of Scer\GAL4tim.PE in a cryb background have a locomotor activity period of 22.6 hours under constant darkness conditions, which is longer (and closer to that of wild type) than the locomotor activity period of 20.3 hours seen under these conditions in flies expressing sggEP1576 under the control of Scer\GAL4tim.PE in wild-type background.

timls/+, jetc/+ (Veela/+); cryb/+ flies exhibit robust rhythmicity in constant light, this phenotype is stronger than in timls/+, jetc/+ (Veela/+) flies and is not seen in cryb/+ flies.

The main difference between cryb and eya1;cryb double mutants is the absence of the compound eyes in the eya1;cryb flies.

Under LD conditions eya1;cryb double mutant flies exhibit the typical bimodal activity pattern consisting of M and E activity bouts, as in wild-type. After transfer into LL conditions, eya1;cryb flies remain rhythmic and free-run with a period close to 24 hours (whereas wild-type flies become immediately arrhythmic).

eya1;cryb double mutants do not exhibit internal desynchronisation under LL conditions, and free-run with a wild-type-like period.

per01; cryb double mutants exhibit a functional clock with a well-defined evening activity peak anticipating `lights off' that is absent in per01 mutants. The evening peak in activity also arrives earlier during the light phase than the wild-type, possibly suggesting an underlying short-period oscillation. tim01;cryb double mutants and per01;tim01;cryb triple mutants do not show any locomotor anticipation of lights off at 18oC, although some residual behaviour is recovered at 29oC. tim01;cryb double mutants and per01;tim01;cryb triple mutants exhibit no change in the phase relationship of the locomotor peak to the lights off signal, as the peak activity moves progressively later as it tracks increasing length light-dark cycles. Hence cryb suppresses the effect of per01 on circadian activity. This is confirmed by the similar behaviour of per01;tim01;cryb to per01;cryb mutants. Under constant darkness or constant light, the rhythmicity of per01;cryb breaks down during the first day. In per01;cryb mutants, brief light pulses administered at 18oC during the night phase at ZT15 and ZT21 in light-dark 12:12 cycles give advances in the phase of locomotor activity. Thus the `clock' of these flies `remembers' a previously administered light pulse, even in light-dark cycles.

Overexpression of 5-HT1BScer\UAS.cYa under the control of Scer\GAL4tim.PE in a cryb homozygous background does not have a discernible effect on the flies light sensitivity due to the strong phenotype produced by the cryb mutation. However, ~87% of the cryb heterozygotes overexpressing 5-HT1BScer\UAS.cYa under the control of Scer\GAL4tim.PE are rhythmic in constant bright light, while only 13% of the control flies are rhythmic under these conditions. Fast Fourier Transform analysis indicates that cryb heterozygous flies overexpressing 5-HT1BScer\UAS.cYa under the control of Scer\GAL4tim.PE have very strong behavioural rhythms in constant bright light, although the average period is lengthened to about 28 hours.

Reducing 5-HT1B expression, through induction of 5-HT1BIR.Scer\UAS, under the control of Scer\GAL4tim.PE, or increasing cry levels through cryScer\UAS.cDa expression, eliminates the strong behavioural rhythms in constant bright light observed in cryb heterozygous flies overexpressing 5-HT1BScer\UAS.cYa under the control of Scer\GAL4tim.PE.

A large number (~43%) of cryb flies overexpressing 5-HT1BScer\UAS.cYa under the control of Scer\GAL4tim.PE are arrhythmic in dark-dark conditions, as compared to 7% in control cryb flies.

When the locomotor activity of wild-type flies are monitored at 18 and 29oC, an earlier evening peak is seen at 18oC. This is not seen in norpA41, cryb mutants.

WGMR.PG; cryb flies show anomalous rhythmicity in when kept in constant light, like cryb flies. The longer period of rhythmicity seen when cryb are kept in constant light of high intensity is suppressed when the flies are also mutant for either WGMR.PG, gl60j or norpA36.

gl60j, cryb and WGMR.PG; cryb flies fail to entrain to light-dark cycles of even the highest amplitude.

so1; cryb double mutants have the same partially penetrant eye phenotype as so1 single mutants. When these mutants have eye remnants, they can re-entrain to to 6 hour phase advances of the LD cycle in green or red light, but not blue light. When these mutants are completely eyeless, they are unable to re-entrain at any wavelength and their evening activity peak occurs after lights off, while flies with eye remnants show a peak of activity two hours before lights off, as do wild-type flies. Unlike so1 single mutants, so1; cryb double mutants rarely show antidromic phase shifting.

gl60j cryb double mutant flies do not entrain at all to 12 hour light-12 hour dark (LD) cycles. At 100 lux, approximately 70% of the flies show free-running behaviour. The average activity shows a small peak after lights off at 100 lux and at 1000 lux virtually all flies react to lights off with a pronounced activity peak. At 1000 lux, the activity level is generally lower during the light phase than during the dark phase. A free-running circadian activity component is present in 81% of the activity records, and after transfer into constant darkness conditions rhythmic locomotor behaviour usually continues from this free-running component and not from the lights-off peak. Approximately 30% of gl60j cryb double mutant flies show poor rhythmicity, even under LD conditions. At 100 lux, about 20% of the flies are arrhythmic, and about 10% show a complex rhythmicity characterised by several small but significant peaks in the periodograms. gl60j cryb double mutants show neither period changes nor any increase in activity level or intervals between morning and evening locomotor activity peaks after transfer from constant darkness to constant light conditions.

In light-dark (LD) conditions pers,cryb double mutant flies show a temperature dependant defect in locomotor activity cycles. At 18oC all flies show a periodic component of about 24 hours (as seen in wild-type) but about 60% of them also display a minor 19 hour component. At 28oC 79% of the rhythmic flies display the endogenous 19 hour period as the main rhythmic component. When pers,cryb double mutant flies are entrained under an light-dark (LD) 10:10 regime - the entrainment breaks down very rapidly during the first two cycles of the new light/dark regime, with their daytime activity advancing by about 90 minutes in each successive day.

norpA39; cryb double mutants take very long to entrain to a new LD regime, some flies do not even reach a new phase by the eleventh day after the shift.

Double mutants of cryb with norpA39, neither of which cause entrainment problems alone, exhibit entrainment problems in the initial LD regime. Only 50% of those that entrain to the initial LD cycle were able to synchronize to a new light regime that applies 16-lux blue light. At lower light intensities nearly all of the double mutants fail to entrain to the new LD cycles. Double mutant pers, cryb flies have complex behavior under LD conditions. The double mutant shows both entrained and free running behavioral components. The double mutants are active at different times essentially every day, so their average activity plot shows a monotonic decrease in behavior throughout the daytime, whereas singly mutant pers flies exhibit a pronounced midday peak of activity.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

A Dple\cry1Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC transgene driven by Scer\GAL4tim.PE successfully restores both naive and trained responses to magnetic field in a wavelength-dependent manner in the cryb background.

Expression of Dple\cry2Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC under the control of Scer\GAL4tim.PE successfully restores both naive and trained responses to magnetic field in cryb mutants, and it does so in a wavelength-dependent manner.

cryb mutant flies expressing Dple\cry1W328F.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4tim.PE show appropriate, significant naive and trained responses to magnetic field.

Expression of Dple\cry1Scer\UAS.cZa under the control of Scer\GAL4tim.PE partially suppresses the cryb circadian phase defects.

Expression of Dple\cry2Scer\UAS.cZa under the control of Scer\GAL4tim.PE fails to suppress the circadian phase defects in cryb mutants.

Complementation and Rescue Data
Partially rescued by
Comments

cryb mutants expressing cryScer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC under the control of Scer\GAL4tim.PE show significant naive and trained responses to magnetic fields which are similar in both direction and magnitude to those of wild-type flies.

cryb mutant flies expressing cryW342F.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4tim.PE show appropriate, significant naive and trained responses to magnetic field.

Magnetosensitivity is not restored in cryb flies when Dple\cry2W345F.Scer\UAS is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4tim.PE.

In contrast to wild-type animals, cryb mutants expressing Scer\GAL4P2.4.Pdf driven cryScer\UAS.cEa do display locomotor activity rhythms under constant light conditions.

Similarly to wild-type flies, the majority of cryb mutants expressing Scer\GAL4Mai179 driven cryScer\UAS.cEa do not display locomotor activity rhythms under constant light conditions regardless of the presence or absence of Scer\GAL80Pdf.PS in the genotype.

Similarly to wild-type animals, most of the cryb mutants expressing Scer\GAL4tim.PE driven cryScer\UAS.cEa do not display locomotor activity rhythms under constant light conditions regardless of the presence or absence of Scer\GAL80Pdf.PS in the genotype.

Overexpression of cryScer\UAS.cDa, under the regulation of Scer\GAL4tim.PE rescues the cryb phenotype, with the flies becoming desynchronised and arrhythmic after 1 or 2 days. Overexpression of cryΔ5'.Scer\UAS.cDa, under the regulation of Scer\GAL4tim.PE does not rescue the cryb phenotype, with the flies remaining synchronised for about 6 days, exhibiting a long period phenotype before becoming desynchronised.

The behavioural rhythmicity seen in cryb flies under intense constant light (wild-type flies are arrhythmic under such conditions) is rescued by expression of cryScer\UAS.cEa under the control of Scer\GAL4tim.PE; the rescued flies are arrhythmic.

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Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (1)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer

Selected as: Abolishing bioluminescence rhythms in perBG.T:Ppyr\LUC.

External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (7)
References (76)