Both RelE20 homozygous (more severe) and heterozygous mutants display a strongly impaired climbing ability during adulthood (starting from a young age) while neither reveal any major disruption of the tissue or mitochondrial integrity in the flight muscles when compared to controls.
RelE20 individuals are sensitive to Ecc15 bacterial infection via feeding or septic injury.
RelE20 adults exhibit increased mortality as a result of Enterobacter cloacae infection when compared to controls.
RelE20/RelE20 flies display a decrease in both acute and chronic food intake and lipid storage in the fat body (but not intestine) compared to heterozygous controls. Resistance to starvation is significantly reduced in homozygous flies compared to both heterozygous and wild-type controls. Starved homozygous flies show a severe decrease in lipid storage and lipid droplet size.
RelE20 adults exhibit sensitivity to bacterial infection with Listeria innocua but not Erwinia carotovora.
RelE20/Df(3R)ED5301 transheterozygotes infected with DCV show a significantly decreased lifespan and a severe increase in viral load, as compared to infected controls.
Motor neurons in RelE20/RelE20 third instar larvae show a slight but significant increase in mEPSP (mini excitatory postsynaptic potential) amplitudes, no change in EPSP (excitatory postsynaptic potential) amplitude or mEPSP frequency, and a significant decrease in quantal content compared to controls. There is no difference in the number of boutons and active zones per NMJ, nor in active zone density.
RelE20 adults exhibit increased mortality upon exposure to Pseudomonas entomophila oral infection when compared to controls.
Conventionally raised and axenic (grown in antibiotics-supplemented food) RelE20 adults exhibit significantly decreased lifespan when compared to controls. Conventionally raised (but not axenic) RelE20 flies harbor more L. plantarum (but not A. pomorum) and they exhibit increased cell division in gut when compared to control adults.
RelE20 mutant adult flies exhibit increased susceptibility to Coxiella burnetii: their post-infection survival rate is significantly reduced compared to wild-type controls.
Upon repeated infection, isolated circulating naive macrophages from RelE20 larvae show a significantly decreased uptake of E.coli bacteria, as compared to equally infected controls.
RelE20 mutant flies display significantly reduced survival rate upon infection with Escherichia coli.
RelE20 mutants show normal uracil-dependent defecation.
Guts from RelE20 mutants exhibited a decrease in colony-forming units 5 and 8 hours after feeding with the microbe Erwinia carotovora.
When fed Erwinia carotovora, RelE20 mutants display a significantly higher mortality rate than control flies.
RelE20 mutant flies show reduced survival rate upon infection with Pseudomonas entomophila, Bacillus subtilis or Erwinia carotovora compared to wild-type.
RelE20/RelE20 mutants exhibit a significant decrease in survival in response to P. rettgeri or L. monocytogenes infection, as compared to wild type.
The sensitivity of RelE20 mutants to radiation is comparable to wild-type controls as their eclosion rate following irradiation during third larval instar is not significantly affected.
RelE20 adult mutant flies show significantly lower survival rate upon infection with Gram-negative bacteria compared to controls.
Mutant adults show reduced survival compared to wild type after septic injury with Gram negative bacteria (either Salmonella typhimurium or Enterobacter cloacae).
In contrast to wild-type, survival of RelE20 mutant flies is compromised following Erwinia carotovora Ecc15 infection.
RelE20 mutant flies exposed to non-replicating P. aeruginosa bacteria display the same survival rate as non-exposed flies. Wild-type flies exhibit a greater survival rate due to a build up of immunity.
Mutant flies show reduced compared to wild type after injection with Ecc15 (Gram-negative bacterium).
Median survival in days is reduced in mutant flies compared to wild type.
Intestinal stem cell proliferation is increased in RelE20 mutants.
Mutant flies show greatly reduced survival compared to wild type after septic injury with Erwinia carotovora carotovora 15.
Mutant flies show severely reduced survival in response to infection with E. coli/
Homozygous larvae have reduced levels of triacylglycerols compared to wild type.
Mutant flies are sensitive to infection with E. cloacae, showing reduced survival after infection compared to the survival of wild-type controls.
Mutant flies show a reduced survival rate compared to control flies after infection with either E.coli or P. aeruginosa. The mutant flies show normal resistance to infection with either S. aureus or A. fumigatus.
RelE20 mutant flies show higher levels of viral replication and viral titers 5 days after intrathoracic infection with 200 pfu of Sindbis virus compared to controls.
Short term starvation improves the survival and containment of infection of RelE20 mutant flies following immune challenge with Gram-negative bacteria. Administering the NO Synthase-inhibitory arginine analog N-Nitro-L-Arginine- Methyl-Ester (L-NAME) but not its inactive enantiomer D-NAME, increased sensitivity to infection once again to levels expected for RelE20 mutants.
Infection with either gram-negative or gram-positive pathogens results in between 80-90% levels of death in RelE20 mutants. Short term starvation (STS)improves the survival rate considerably, with only 40% of STS flies dying in the same period.
RelE20 mutant flies, infected by septic injury with a needle dipped in E. carotovora quickly succumb to the infection, whereas wild-type flies survive.
RelE20 mutant flies, infected by septic injury with a needle dipped in L. monocytogenes quickly succumb to the infection, whereas wild-type flies survive.
Homozygous flies are more sensitive to Cricket Paralysis virus infection (after being injected with the virus) than control flies.
RelE20 flies display an increase in susceptibility and mortality to genital infection (and subsequent infection throughout the body) compared to wild-type controls. There is no apparent difference between E.carotova infection on the outside of the genitalia in RelE20 and wild-type flies. However, upon dissection 24 hours after genital infection, bacteria are found in the body cavity of 19% of RelE20 mutant flies, while no bacteria are found inside wild-type flies. Consistent with this, there is a weak but significant mortality after genital infection in RelE20 flies. Mortality is observed in wild-type, and more strongly in RelE20 flies after genital infection with a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
RelE20 flies have a reduced survival time compared to controls following challenge with the gram-negative bacteria Erwinia carotovora 15 (Ecc15).
RelE20 flies show a normal lifespan on dead yeast medium and on live yeast medium. RelE20 flies have a low number of living yeast in the gut (assayed as the number of colony-forming units from homogenates of surface-sterilized intestines), as do wild-type flies.
RelE20 mutants are highly sensitive to Gram-negative bacterial infection.
RelE20 flies show significantly lower survival rates compared to control flies after infection with E.cloacae by septic injury.
RelE20 mutants show 98% lethality one month after infection with a 1:1 mixture of M. luteus and E.coli, compared to 10% in wild-type. RelE20 mutant adults are more sensitive to fungal infection than wild type flies, with 100% lethality at 22 days. This compares to only 55-70% at 30 days in wild type. RelE20 mutant larvae show a reduced eclosion rate following injection with M. luteus and E. coli.
Homozygous flies show ectopic macrochaetae in 38% of heminota analysed at 18[o]C (this phenotype is not seen at 25[o]C). In most cases, one ectopic macrochaeta is seen per heminotum.
Heterozygous flies show ectopic dorsocentral bristles in the medial notum in 26% of heminota at 18[o]C.
Mutant flies are defective clearing bacteria after injection with E.coli.
Homozygous virgin females have significantly higher bacterial counts per fly after infection with S.marcescens compared to their sibling control females.
Mutant flies show reduced survival compared to control flies after infection with E.coli, but show normal levels of survival after infection with A.fumigatus.
RelE20 flies exhibit a dramatically decreased viability when pricked with a needle dipped in a concentrated solution of gram-negative Esherichia coli or Erwinia carotovora.
RelE20 mutant flies are highly susceptible to infection by gram-negative bacteria, and the majority of flies die within 25 hours of septic injury.
High mortality levels are observed when RelE20 flies are fed on the ROS-resistant KNU53775 yeast strain but are not observed when they are fed on a standard yeast strain (W303). Wild-type flies do not show the same sensitivity to the KNU53775 strain.
RelE20 flies show increased mortality following infection with a Salmonella strain that overexpresses an antioxidant gene, but these flies show no increased mortality following infection with the same Salmonella strain when it does not overexpress the antioxidant gene.
Infection of RelE20 flies with an Escherichia coli strain that overexpresses an antioxidant gene leads to host death following severe damage to epithelial cells. Following infection, the midgut of these flies becomes visibly swollen, there is a morphological alteration of its columnar structure and epithelial cells degenerate. Although the visceral musculature appears to remain intact, intestinal cells adopt a flat morphology. This pathology is not seen in controls.
Mutant flies show reduced survival rates compared to control flies after bacterial (E.carotovora) infection.
Mutant animals, like wild-type, are significantly less susceptible to P.aeruginosa PA14 virulent strain after infection with the CF5 avirulent strain.
RelE20 flies are more susceptible to Psuedomonas entomophila infection that wild-type flies, with both larvae and adults RelE20 flies succumbing faster to infection than wild-type flies.
RelE20 flies exhibit no significant altered sensitivity to viral infection compared to wild-type.
Mutants show no detectable induction of Dpt, CecA1 and CecA2. Attacin levels are reduced compared to wild type and Drs induction is normal.
Mutant adults are highly susceptible to infection by E.coli (survival rate is reduced after pricking with an infected needle compared to survival rate of control flies). Mutant adults are not highly susceptible to infection by M.luteus.
Mutant flies show the same level of resistance to B.bassiana (when their cuticles are coated with spores) as wild-type flies.
RelE20 flies do not survive injection with E.cloacae β12 (injection with approximately 2 x 105 bacteria per fly), dying within 17 hours, in contrast to wild-type flies. Lower doses of bacteria also kill the mutant flies (even at an average estimated dose of 0.2 bacteria per fly). The flies are more sensitive to injection with the fungi G.candidum, D.uninucleata or M.anisopliae than wild-type flies, the majority of mutant flies being killed within a week. Larvae show an efficient encapsulation reaction when infested with the parasitoid wasp L.boulardi. Total hemocyte cell number and morphology appears normal and the lymph glands are also not visibly affected. The phagocytic activity of hemocytes after injection with bacteria is indistinguishable from wild type.