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General Information
D. melanogaster
FlyBase ID
Feature type
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
pain3, painless3
Key Links
Allele class
Nature of the Allele
Allele class
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
Additional Notes
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
Progenitor genotype
Nature of the lesion
Insertion components
Product class / Tool use(s)
Encoded product / tool
Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease-implicated variant(s)
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description

painEP2251 mutant adults have no difference in spiking of mechanosensory neurons of the labellar taste bristles or labellar taste pegs in response to mechanical stimuli, compared to controls.

painEP2251 mutant adults do not show any defects in sensing food hardness and like the wild-type flies prefer softer food with lower sugar content (0.5mM sucrose, 0.2% agarose) to a hard food with higher sugar content (1mM sucrose, 2% agarose) in a binary choice assay.

The number of times painEP2251 females reject males is significantly lower than that of wild-type females.

painEP2251 homozygous and heterozygous adults are defective in courtship long term memory (reduction in courtship activity 5 days after 7-hours conditioning) when compared to controls. painEP2251 homozygous adults exhibit normal courtship short term memory (reduction in courtship activity 30 minutes after 1-hour conditioning) when compared to controls.

Mutant third instar larvae show significant defects in nociception, having a significant reduction in the response frequency to noxious mechanical stimuli compared to control larvae. However, the navigational behaviours of the mutant larvae in response to gentle touch are not significantly different from wild type.

painEP2451/painEP2251 trans-heterozygous flies exhibit strong male-male courtship behavior.

painGAL4/painEP2251 trans-heterozygous flies exhibit strong male-male courtship behavior.

painEP2251 mutant larvae show a significant delay in response to noxious heat compared to control flies. These flies also exhibit a delay in their jump response to noxious heat of 11 seconds.

Mutant larvae do not show the cardiac pauses during motion which are seen in wild-type larvae.

Basal cardiac activity (measured in anaesthetised animals) is increased in mutant larvae compared to wild-type controls.

The action potential recordings from semi-dissected heart tubes of mutant larvae are abnormal, showing a slightly more positive maximum diastolic potential and reduced amplitude of depolarisation than recordings from wild type.

Semi-dissected heart tubes in which local pressure is applied to segment A6 do not show cardiac arrest after the pressure is applied, in contrast to wild-type heart tubes, which under these conditions undergo cardiac arrest of an average duration of 25.8 +/- 1.6 seconds.

The cardiac rhythm of mutant semi-dissected heart tubes is not modified by hypo-osmotic shock (in contrast to wild-type larvae).

The mating success rate, defined as the percentage of pairs that copulate, is significantly higher in painEP2251 homozygous females than wild-type. The time to copulation of painEP2251 mutant females is significantly shorter than that of controls. No significant difference is detected in the courtship latency or courtship index (defined as the percentage of time spent courting in a given observation period). These results show that painEP2251 mutant females do not elicit increased courtship behavior than control females, and that the rapid copulation of virgin painEP2251 mutant females is because of their enhanced receptivity.

No significant difference is observed in locomotion of painEP2251 mutant females compared to controls.

Larvae show normal thermotactic behaviour in a thermal preference assay.

Expression of painEP2251 under the control of Scer\GAL4ptc-559.1 results in one additional scutellar macrochaetae.

External Data
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Xenogenetic Interactions
Complementation and Rescue Data
Not rescued by
Fails to rescue

painEP2251/+ rescues courtship long term memory phenotype of painGAL4/+ but not painEP2451/+.

painGAL4/+ but not painEP2451/+ rescues courtship long term memory phenotype of painEP2251/+.

Using the Scer\GAL4NP1029 driver to over-express pain from the Scer\UAS sites present in the P{EP}painEP2251 insertion rescues the cardiac defects seen in the painEP2251 mutant background in the absence of a Scer\GAL4 driver.

Expression of painScer\UAS.cTa under the control of Scer\GAL4pain-GAL4 in a homozygous mutant painEP2251 background significantly lengthens the time to copulation in female flies to a level similar to control flies.

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Notes on Origin
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (6)
References (17)