Open Close
General Information
D. melanogaster
FlyBase ID
Feature type
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
pain-GAL4, painless-Gal4
Key Links
Allele class
Nature of the Allele
Allele class
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
Additional Notes
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
Progenitor genotype
Nature of the lesion

painGAL4 contains P{GawB}painGAL4 in the first exon of pain.

The P{EP} element in painEP2451 has been replaced by P{GawB} by gene conversion.

Insertion components
Product class / Tool use(s)
Expression Data
Reporter Expression
distribution deduced from reporter (Gal4 UAS)
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Additional Information

painGAL4 drives expression in a cluster of 100 chordotonal neurons in the Johnston organ arranged in a bent ring. In a lateral view, this ring of chordotonal neurons labeled with painGAL4 is on the inside of the ring formed by the scolopidial dendritic cap cells labeled with Scer\GAL4pyx.PS.

Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease-implicated variant(s)
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description

Mutant animals with a painGAL4/painNP7022 genotype show pronounced thermal nociception and mechanical nociception defective phenotype. In mechanical niciception test, painGAL4/painNP7022 trans-heterozygotes respond approximately 40% of the time to a 50mN Von-Frey fiber (compared to 70% in wild-type).

painGAL4 homozygous and heterozygous adults are defective in courtship long term memory (reduction in courtship activity 5 days after 7-hours conditioning) while homozygotes exhibit normal courtship short term memory (reduction in courtship activity 30 minutes after 1-hour conditioning) when compared to controls.

painGAL4 flies display weakened avoidance of the odorant 4-methyl-cyclohexanol, compared to wild-type controls, which display a strong avoidance for 4-methyl-cyclohexanol perfused air. When exposed to 4-methyl-cyclohexanol at lower concentrations, painGAL4 flies display the wild-type preference behavior, suggesting an alteration in response towards this odor.

Male painGAL4 flies display a male-male courtship behavior in the morning (Zeitgeber Time: ZT0.5-ZT3). The chaining index (i.e. the percentage of time these males spend courting one another and forming chains) is 10% for these flies, significantly higher than in wild-type males (0%). After recovery from a mild anaesthesia (brief treatments with CO[[2]], nitrogen, or -20[o]C chilling), the intensity of this male-male courtship behavior is greatly enhanced over a long period (up to ~3 hours after CO[[2]] treatment).

painEP2451/painGAL4 trans-heterozygous flies exhibit strong male-male courtship behavior. In contrast, painEP2451/+ heterozygotes do not exhibit obvious male-male courtship behavior.

painGAL4/painEP2462 trans-heterozygous flies exhibit strong male-male courtship behavior.

painGAL4/painEP2251 trans-heterozygous flies exhibit strong male-male courtship behavior.

When placed with two decapitated wild-type flies of opposing genders, painGAL4 males and wild-type males display a similar delay in courtship initiation, suggesting that painGAL4 males are capable of sensing the targets and of initiating courtship behavior. painGAL4 mutant males are able to distinguish female from male flies, although the preference index is slight lower as compared with that of wild-type flies. The total time spent by painGAL4 males on courting is significantly longer than that observed for wild-type males.

Under dim red light (to remove the effect of visual cues), both wild-type and painGAL4 males show a shorter courtship delay than under normal conditions. painGAL4 mutant males show a smilar sex-discriminating ability as under white light, whereas wild-type flies spend more time courting the male target, indicating that painGAL4 males may have visual deficiencies compared to wild-type flies.

The mating success rate, defined as the percentage of pairs that copulate, is significantly higher in painGAL4 homozygous females than wild-type. The time to copulation of painGAL4 mutant females is significantly shorter than that of controls. No significant difference is detected in the courtship latency or courtship index (defined as the percentage of time spent courting in a given observation period). These results show that painGAL4 mutant females do not elicit increased courtship behavior than control females, and that the rapid copulation of virgin painGAL4 mutant females is because of their enhanced receptivity.

No significant difference is observed in locomotion of painGAL4 mutant females compared to controls.

painGAL4 mutants display impaired negative geotaxis behaviour.

The Johnston's organ of painGAL4 mutant flies show impaired neural activity in response to body rotation.

painGAL4 mutants do not show impaired auditory response.

painGAL4 flies exhibit a reduced avoidance to isothiocyanate-containing food.

painGAL4 mutants exhibit normal avoidance to quinine and NaCl. They also exhibit wild-type levels of attraction to sucrose.

painGAL4 mutants exhibit wild-type levels of attraction to capsaicin.

External Data
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Xenogenetic Interactions
Complementation and Rescue Data
Partially rescued by
Fails to rescue

Expression of painp103.Scer\UAS.T:Avic\GFP-YFP.Venus under the control of Scer\GAL4pain-GAL4 and Scer\GAL4NP7022 results in a nearly complete rescue of nociception responses to a 46[o]C thermal stimulus in painGAL4/painNP7022 trans-heterozygotes. However, expression of painp103.Scer\UAS.T:Avic\GFP-YFP.Venus does not rescue mechanical nociception.

Expression of painp60.Scer\UAS.T:Avic\GFP-YFP.Venus under the control of Scer\GAL4pain-GAL4 and Scer\GAL4NP7022 does not rescue nociception responses to a 46[o]C thermal stimulus in painGAL4/painNP7022 trans-heterozygotes but does improve the mechanical nociception responses of the mutant animals, such that they are no longer different from wild-type.

painEP2251/+, painEP2451/+ or expression of pain+t8.5 rescues while painEP2621/+ fails to rescue courtship long term memory phenotype of painGAL4/+ .

painGAL4/+ rescues courtship long term memory phenotype of painEP2251/+ or painEP2451/+ but not painEP2621/+.

Expression of painScer\UAS.cTa in painGAL4 under the control of Scer\GAL4pain-GAL4 partially restores the avoidance to high levels of 4-methyl-cyclohexanol, but does not restore the low concentration avoidance.

Expression of painScer\UAS.cTa under the control of Scer\GAL4pain-GAL4 in a homozygous mutant painGAL4 background significantly lengthens the time to copulation in female flies to a level similar to control flies.

Images (0)
Stocks (1)
Notes on Origin

Based on the avoidance to isothiocyanate-containing food in a two-choice preference test, the following alleles can be ranked from strongest response to weakest in the following order: painEP2451 > painEP2621 > painGAL4.

External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (1)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
Name Synonyms
Secondary FlyBase IDs
    References (8)