Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Ace
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Acetylcholine esterase
Annotation Symbol
CG17907
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000024
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Acetylcholine esterase (Ace) encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to acetate and choline, thus resetting the neurotransmission mechanism at neuromuscular junctions. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

AChE, acetylcholinesterase, DmAChE

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:13,222,951..13,259,517 [-]
Recombination map
3-53
RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:13222951..13259517
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (8 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001445
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
located_in plasma membrane
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the type-B carboxylesterase/lipase family. (P07140)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
Acetylcholine esterase (Ace) encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to acetate and choline, thus resetting the neurotransmission mechanism at neuromuscular junctions. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
OTHER CARBOXYLESTERASES -
OTHER CARBOXYLESTERASES are carboxylesterases that do not fall into any other major carboxylesterase group.
S9 NON-PEPTIDASE HOMOLOGS -
S9 non-peptidase homologs are similar in amino acid sequence to S9 serine peptidases but lack one or more of the expected catalytic residues. (Adapted from FBrf0239469.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Rapidly hydrolyzes choline released into the synapse. It can hydrolyze butyrylthiocholine.
(UniProt, P07140)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Ace: Acetyl cholinesterase (J.C. Hall)
The structural gene for acetylcholinesterase [AChE, acetylcholine acetyl hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.7)], the enzyme that terminates synaptic transmission by rapidly hydrolyzing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Biochemical analysis (e.g., Zingde, Rodrigues, Joshi, and Krishnan, 1983, J. Neurochem. 41: 1243-52; Gnagey, Forte, and Rosenberry, 1987, J. Biol. Chem. 262: 13290-98; Fournier, Bride, Karch, and Berge, 1988, FEBS Lett. 238: 333-37; Haas, Marshall, and Rosenberry, 1988, Biochemistry 27: 6453-57; Toutant, Arpagaus, and Fournier, 1988, J. Neurochem. 50: 209-18; Fournier, Berge, Almeida, and Bordier, 1988, J. Neurochem. 50: 1158-63), indicates that the mature enzyme contains noncovalently associated subunits of 16 and 55 kd, which are processed from a primary translation product of ca 70 kd such that the 16-kd moiety is from the N terminus and the 55-kd moiety is from the C terminus; two such associations are linked via disulfide bonds connecting the 55-kd polypeptides anchored to membrane via a glycoinositol phospholipid anchor covalently linked to the C termini of the 55-kd subunits. Extracts contain amphiphilic dimers and monomers as well as hydrophilic dimers and monomers, which lack the glycoinositol phospholipid anchor. Developmental profile studied by Dewhurst, McCaman, and Kaplan (1970, Biochem. Genet. 4: 499-508; see also Arpagaus, Fournier, and Toutant, 1988, Insect Biochem. 18: 539-49); total AChE activity shows a transient peak during first larval instar and rises again to a maximum in the adult. In the developing eye disc, AChE first appears in retinula cells three to four days before they are functional and when it cannot have a synaptic function; levels are reduced in retinula cells midway through pupal development, and the enzyme accumulates rapidly in the neuropils of the optic lobes of the brain and the midbrain (Wolfgang and Forte, 1989, Dev. Biol. 131: 321-30). Putative nulls are lethal at end of embryonic stage; then ultrastructural observations of CNS in such mutants suggest neural degenerative defects (Chase and Kankel, 1988, Dev. Biol. 125: 361-80). ACE-minus tissues survive in mosaics unless enzyme absent from posterior midbrain; surviving mosaics have defective visual physiology, optomotor behavior or courtship, depending on location of mutant clone. Such clones associated with defective morphology or neuropile of various ganglia in central nervous system (Greenspan et al., 1980). In heat-sensitive combinations of Ace mutations (Greenspan et al., 1980), both membrane-bound and soluble enzyme has reduced activity (Zador, 1989, Mol. Gen. Genet. 218: 487-90).
Acel
Temperature insensitive lethal; lethal in homozygotes or in combination with deficiency for Ace+. Lethality at end of embryonic stage. Greatly reduced levels of acetylcholinesterase. AChE-minus tissues survive in mosaics unless enzyme absent from posterior midbrain; surviving mosaics have defective visual physiology, optomotor behavior, or courtship depending on location of mutant clone. Such clones associated with defective morphology of neuropile of various ganglia in central nervous system.
AceHD1
Retains some ACE activity (Nagoshi and Gelbart, 1987, Genetics 117: 487-502), but only as soluble enzyme outside CNS (Zudor et al., 1986).
Acej29
The original allele of this complementation group. Cold sensitive lethal. Maximum survival of Acej29/Df(3R)l26d at 27, no survival at 18. Exposure to 18 does not reduce AChE activity. Acej29 alters Km of enzyme, further implying structural gene locus.
Acej40
Nearly completely lethal. Two percent survival in combination with Df(3R)l26d at 18, none at 29. Partial complementation of Acej19 and Acej50; heat sensitive; extracts of Acej40 lack the 110 kilodalton molecular species, whereas Acej19 and Acej50 lack the 64 and 75 kilodalton species (Zingde, Rodrigues, Joshi, and Krishnan, 1983, J. Neurochem. 41: 1243-52). Enzyme produced by heteroallelic combinations raised under permissive conditions is thermolabile. Exposure of Acej40/Acej19 or Acej40/Acej50 flies to restrictive temperature during late embryonic-early larvae stage lethal; little effect on mid and late larval stages; pupal exposure causes defects in adult phototaxis and motor activity. Heat treatment of adults causes no decline in ACE activity but decrements in phototaxis (29), and cessation of movement (31) observed. Acej40 produces enzyme with altered Km.
Acej44
Acelm35
Hypomorphic allele. Exhibits reduced survival (< 30%) in combination with Df(3R)l26d. Enzyme activity in Acelm35/+ heterozygotes lower than in heterozygotes for more severe alleles.
Acemr: Acetylcholinesterase-malathion resistant
Acetylcholinesterase from homozygotes has lower Km, lower activity, and slightly increased electrophoretic mobility compared to wild type. Relation to malathion resistance unclear.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Ace for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0082780
7980
649
FBtr0300486
4076
649
FBtr0335223
3262
636
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

4.291 (compiled cDNA)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0082248
71.9
649
6.01
FBpp0289713
71.9
649
6.01
FBpp0307210
70.8
636
5.95
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

649 aa isoforms: Ace-PA, Ace-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

66, 64, 60, 57 (kD)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Homodimer; disulfide-linked. The active unit is formed by non-covalent association of the 55 kDa and 16 kDa subunits.

(UniProt, P07140)
Post Translational Modification

Proteolytic cleavage into the 16 kDa subunit and the 55 kDa subunits originates from the hydrophilic peptide, aa 148-180, and is associated with excretion out of the cell.

Neither N-glycosylation nor dimerization is required for enzyme activity or substrate specificity, but protects the protein against proteolytic digestion.

(UniProt, P07140)
Crossreferences
PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Ace using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Ace protein is expressed in the ventral nerve cord, in a mutually exclusive pattern to Cha protein.

Developmental profiles of enzyme activity were carried out. The soluble form is seen only in pupae and adults.

Development profiles of enzyme activity were carried out. The soluble form is seen only in pupae an adults.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
located_in plasma membrane
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Ace in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 68 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 15 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Ace
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Ace
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 25 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 25 )
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adult brain & neuropil | conditional ts (with Acej40)
adult brain & neuropil | conditional ts (with Acej50)
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (18)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
1  
9 of 15
No
Yes
1  
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1  
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (33)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (37)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (22)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (21)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (47)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
3 of 12
Yes
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903S4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091502A4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0BIG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0BG7 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0I4G )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (36)
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    suppressible
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Homodimer; disulfide-linked. The active unit is formed by non-covalent association of the 55 kDa and 16 kDa subunits.
    (UniProt, P07140 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-53
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:13,222,951..13,259,517 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    87E2-87E3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}CtBP03463 and P{lacW}B52s2249&P{lacW}flflL4179
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    87E3-87E3
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    87E1-87E5
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (13)
    Genomic Clones (38)
    cDNA Clones (49)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      Ace enzyme has been purified and characterised biochemically.

      A region of the Nrt extracellular domain is sufficient for cell adhesion, cholinesterase-like domain (from Ace) may functionally replace the Nrt extracellular domain for adhesion properties.

      Localisation of the Ace-specific RNA in developing wild type and mutant embryos is determined.

      Biochemical analysis reveals recombinant Ace produced in insect cells is correctly processed (cleavage of the signal peptide, endoproteolytic cleavage of the precursor, formation of fucnctional dimers and addition of a GPI residue).

      Mutations in Ace decrease the rate of secretion of Ace protein from Xenopus oocytes, probably by affecting the folding of the mutant protein.

      In situ hybridisation studies imply that the non-CNS-specific Ace can also be non-neuronal. It is dispensable for the late embryonic development and it does not substitute for the acetylcholine hydrolysing capacity of the CNS-specific enzyme.

      Four subclass I cholinesterases (EST4, EST5, EST8 and EST13) are isoforms of Ace.

      Quantitative and qualitative changes in Ace confer resistance to insecticides: resistance is correlated to the amount of Ace in the CNS and an altered enzyme renders flies resistant to insecticides.

      Tyrosine at position 109 contributes to the conformation of the active site; the Tyr charge is very important for catalytic properties. Sensitivity to organophosphorus and carbamate compounds depends on the residues at position 109: this Tyr is a potential site of resistance for insects to insecticides.

      13 strains of D.melanogaster were isolated that showed resistance to parathion. The level of resistance varied among the strains implying that several forms of Ace exist, the mutations responsible for insecticide resistance are not described.

      Comparison of CpG distribution in the coding region of 121 genes from six species supports the mCpG mutational hotspot explanation of CpG suppression in methylated species at position II-III and III-I.

      Protein products identified as EST4, EST5, EST8 and EST9 isozymes.

      The complete organization of Ace has been determined.

      The kinetics of inhibition of Ace by the carbamate inhibitor eserine sulphate were investigated in five resistant strains.

      Ace is present as two distinct forms: soluble and membrane-bound.

      Some alleles of Ace affect In(1)wm4h variegation.

      Ace has been cloned and sequenced.

      Cross-hybridization, DNA blot hybridization and hybridization selection experiments demonstrated that the Drosophila and human 2 kb fragments from the vicinity of Ace are directly involved in controlling acetylcholineesterase biosynthesis.

      Structural gene for acetyl cholinesterase, the enzyme that terminates synaptic transmission by rapidly hydrolyzing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Biochemical analysis (e.g., FBrf0039804; FBrf0046585; FBrf0048054; FBrf0047579; FBrf0048523; FBrf0048525) indicates that the mature enzyme contains noncovalently associated subunits of 16 and 55kD, which are processed from a primary translation product of ca 70kD such that the 16kD moiety is from the N terminus and the 55kD moiety is from the C terminus; two such associations are linked via disulfide bonds connecting the 55kD polypeptides anchored to membrane via a glycoinositol phospholipid anchor covalently linked to the C termini of the 55kD subunits. Extracts contain amphiphilic dimers and monomers as well as hydrophilic dimers and monomers, which lack the glycoinositol phospholipid anchor. Developmental profile studied (FBrf0021148) see also (FBrf0048366); total Ace activity shows a transient peak during first larval instar and rises again to a maximum in the adult. In the developing eye disc, Ace protein first appears in retinula cells three to four days before they are functional and when it cannot have a synaptic function; levels are reduced in retinula cells midway through pupal development and the enzyme accumulates rapidly in the neuropils of the optic lobes of the brain and the midbrain (FBrf0049490). Variation at Ace contributes to variation in the sensitivity of Drosophila to certain insecticides.

      Loss of function alleles are recessive lethal dying at end of embryonic stage; then ultrastructural observations of CNS in such mutants suggest neural-degenerative defects (FBrf0047827). Ace-minus tissues survive in mosaics unless enzyme absent from posterior midbrain; surviving mosaics have defective visual physiology, optomotor behavior or courtship, depending on location of mutant clone. Such clones associated with defective morphology or neuropil of various ganglia in central nervous system (FBrf0035219). In temperature-sensitive combinations of Ace mutations (FBrf0035219), both membrane-bound and soluble enzyme has reduced activity (FBrf0050574). All alleles lethal in the hemizygous condition.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 58 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (22)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      AChE
      (Portela et al., 2021, Abolaji et al., 2020, Abolaji et al., 2020, Liang and Han, 2020, Pramod Kumar and Harish Prashanth, 2020, Senthilkumar et al., 2020, Takeo et al., 2020, Bianchini et al., 2019, Deepashree et al., 2019, de Freitas Couto et al., 2019, Halmenschelager and da Rocha, 2019, Portela et al., 2019, Akinyemi et al., 2018, Niveditha and Shivanandappa, 2018, Oboh et al., 2018, Dey et al., 2017, Kulkarni et al., 2017, Gai et al., 2016, Haddadi et al., 2016, Krishna and Muralidhara, 2016, Ren et al., 2016, Stojan, 2016, Abolaji et al., 2015, Adedara et al., 2015, Zemolin et al., 2014, Haddadi et al., 2013, Zhu et al., 2013, Girish and Muralidhara, 2012, Kim et al., 2011, Buiculescu et al., 2010, Kim et al., 2010, Tormos et al., 2010, Barshan-Tashnizi et al., 2009, Istamboulie et al., 2009, Radić et al., 2008, Stojan et al., 2008, Valdés-Ramírez et al., 2008, Wu et al., 2008, Baqri et al., 2006, Shi et al., 2004, Yang and Kunes, 2004, Boublik et al., 2002, Brochier et al., 2001, Charpentier and Fournier, 2001, Bachmann et al., 2000, Marcel et al., 2000, Oakeshott et al., 1999, Estrada-Mondaca and Fournier, 1998, Fresquet et al., 1998, Marcel et al., 1998, Stojan et al., 1998, Villatte et al., 1998, Berrada and Fournier, 1997, Incardona and Rosenberry, 1996, Darboux et al., 1995, Mutero et al., 1994, Zador and Budai, 1994, Incardona and Rosenberry, 1993, Oakeshott et al., 1993, Mutero et al., 1992, Mutero and Fournier, 1991, de la Escalera et al., 1990, Meikle et al., 1990)
      l(3)26
      l(3)87Ed
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (276)