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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\arm
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
armadillo
Annotation Symbol
CG11579
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000117
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
armadillo (arm) encodes the Drosophila homolog of beta-catenin. It plays separable roles in cell adhesion and Wingless signaling. It links classic cadherin cell adhesion receptors to alpha-catenin and the actin cytoskeleton, and it acts as the key regulated effector of Wingless signaling, working with TCF/LEF proteins as a transcriptional co-activator. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

β-catenin, beta-catenin, β-cat, b-catenin, EG:86E4.6

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:1,891,401..1,900,646 [-]
Recombination map
1-0.2
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:1891401..1900646
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (53 terms)
Molecular Function (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Hipk; FB:FBgn0035142
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P22265
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:ssp; FB:FBgn0036248
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Apc2; FB:FBgn0026598
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P91943
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P46150
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q24564
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Mer; FB:FBgn0086384
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Axn; FB:FBgn0026597
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q961D9,UniProtKB:Q9V9W8
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001153077
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001153077
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001153077
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001153077
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001153077
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (35 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (35 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in cell adhesion
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in cell morphogenesis
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in cell-cell adhesion
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in delamination
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in dorsal closure
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:ena; FB:FBgn0000578
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in heart development
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in heart formation
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in long-term memory
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in oogenesis
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001153077
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
located_in axon
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q8IMA8
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
located_in plasma membrane
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
located_in rhabdomere
inferred from direct assay
located_in zonula adherens
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001153077
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001153077
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the beta-catenin family. (P18824)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
armadillo (arm) encodes the Drosophila homolog of beta-catenin. It plays separable roles in cell adhesion and Wingless signaling. It links classic cadherin cell adhesion receptors to alpha-catenin and the actin cytoskeleton, and it acts as the key regulated effector of Wingless signaling, working with TCF/LEF proteins as a transcriptional co-activator. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Pathway (FlyBase)
Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a Wnt ligand to a frizzled family receptor on the cell surface. Activation of the pathway leads to the inhibition of cytoplasmic β-catenin (arm) degradation and its subsequent accumulation in the nucleus, where it regulates the transcription of target genes. (Adapted from FBrf0218499 and FBrf0223299).
Gene Group (FlyBase)
WNT ENHANCEOSOME -
The Wnt enhanceosome complex binds to Wnt/wg-enhancer elements via the TCF/LEF protein, pan. In the absence nuclear β-catenin (arm), Wnt/wg-responsive genes are silenced by the repressor gro binding to the enhanceosome. Activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway leads to arm accumulation in the nucleus, incorporation into the enhanceosome and the stimulation of transcription. (Adapted from FBrf0235074 and FBrf0229654).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Isoform neural may associate with CadN and participate in the transmission of developmental information. Can associate with alpha-catenin. Isoform cytoplasmic accumulates through wg signaling; arm function in wg signal transduction is required early in development for determination of neuroblast fate. Arm and Abl proteins function cooperatively at adherens junctions in both the CNS and epidermis.
(UniProt, P18824)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
arm: armadillo
Homozygous lethal; embryonic segmentation defective by time of germ-band shortening; naked cuticle ordinarily comprising the posterior two thirds of each segment replaced by mirror-image duplication of the anteriorly situated denticle belt; strong alleles delete first denticle row in abdominal segments. May have dorsal hole in cuticle. Embryonic CNS development quasi normal (Patel, Schafer, Goodman, and Holmgren, 1989, Genes Dev. 3: 890-904). Autonomous at the level of single cells as shown by denticulate clones of homozygous cells in the naked cuticle of abdominal segments in arm/+ embryos (Wieschaus and Riggleman, 1987, Cell 49: 177-84). Clones of homozygous female germ cells arrested at stage 10 of oogenesis (Wieschaus and Noell, 1986, Wilhelm Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 195: 63-73). An exception is arm8 for which progeny from homozygous germ-line clones have been recovered (Klingsmith et al.). Cell lethal in imaginal discs; although clones of homozygous cells not observed in adults, their formation seems to engender mirror-image duplications, which are not seen in response to homozygosing other cuticular cell lethals (Wieschaus). Transcript found with minor fluctuations in amount, in all cell types at all stages in development (Riggleman, Wieschaus, and Schedl, 1989, Genes Dev. 3: 96-113).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
6
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\arm for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Alternative translation stop created by use of multiphasic reading frames within coding region.

Variable use of small exon; supported combination results in frameshift and premature stop in downstream exon.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089991
3120
843
FBtr0089989
3220
843
FBtr0089990
3123
721
FBtr0089992
3127
843
FBtr0089988
3116
843
FBtr0332583
3211
843
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0089034
91.2
843
5.30
FBpp0089032
91.2
843
5.30
FBpp0089033
79.3
721
6.32
FBpp0089035
91.2
843
5.30
FBpp0089031
91.2
843
5.30
FBpp0304835
91.2
843
5.30
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

843 aa isoforms: arm-PA, arm-PB, arm-PD, arm-PE, arm-PF
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

721 (aa); 105-115, 82 (kD observed)

843 (aa); 93 (kD)

Comments

arm protein is phosphorylated on both serine or threonine and on tyrosine residues. The level of phosphorylation varies in different tissues and at different times of development. Phosphorylation of arm protein is negatively regulated by wg protein. sgg protein is required for arm protein phosphorylation.

The majority of arm protein in vivo is part of a membrane-associated complex containing α-Cat and an unidentified glycoprotein.

Antibodies raised against arm protein recognize a single protein in canine (MDCK), mouse (3T3), African green monkey (COS-7), and Xenopus (A6) cultured cells. The cross-reacting proteins in A6 and MDCK cells were shown to be β-catenin.

External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Interacts with Mer and Moe at the adherens junction (PubMed:8666669). Interacts with Inx2 (PubMed:15047872). Interacts with alpha-Cat (PubMed:25653389). Interacts with Myo31DF (PubMed:16598259, PubMed:22491943).

(UniProt, P18824)
Post Translational Modification

Phosphorylated on Ser, Thr and Tyr residues (PubMed:7529201). Level of phosphorylation varies both during embryonic development and from embryonic tissue to tissue (PubMed:7529201). Sgg is required for phosphorylation and wg signal negatively regulates arm phosphorylation (PubMed:7529201). Hypophosphorylated form of arm increases in steady-state levels (PubMed:7529201). Phosphorylated directly or indirectly by CkIalpha which stimulates its degradation (PubMed:11927557).

(UniProt, P18824)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\arm using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

The intracellular distribution of arm protein in imaginal discs, salivary glands and larval brain was described. In salivary glands, arm protein is concentrated at the junctions between cells and is punctate on the apical surface. It is uniformly distributed on the lateral surfaces. arm protein distribution is also polarized in imaginal discs where high levels are restricted to the apical side. In the embryonic CNS and larval brain, arm protein is enriched in fiber tracts and there is less in the cell bodies of neurons. In the eye disc, arm protein accumulates fairly uniformly on the membranes separating cells in the undifferentiated region. As the morphogenetic furrow passes, arm expression appears to increase. Strong protein accumulation is seen in a star-shaped pattern on membranes where cells in the precluster abut one another but not at junctions with undifferentiated cells. arm protein often colocalizes with actin.

arm protein localizes to junctions resembling vertebrate adherens junctions.

arm protein is observed outlining clusters of male germline stem cells.

high levels of wg protein induce accumulation of arm protein in stripes of cells.

In stage 13 embryos,arm protein expression is detected on the cell membrane of both somatic germline precursor cells as well as the germline cells in both males and females. This localization is concurrent with the processes of ensheathment and coalescence of the developing gonad. In stage 17 male embryos, arm protein is concentrated in the anterior of the gonad in the region corresponding to the testes hub.

Protein is detected in lateral membrane of the cellularizing embryo and is not detected apically.

The localization of arm protein often parallels the location of adherens junctions.

arm protein expression was studied during oogenesis. arm protein is asymmetrically localized within follicle cells. Within each follicle cell, it accumulates heavily on the lateral cell surface near the apical end abutting the germ cells. It is less abundant on the rest of the follicle cell-follicle cell interface. Staining is the heaviest in a band around the follicle cell near the interface between the lateral and apical surfaces. The majority of arm protein in the ovary is found in the follicle cells but it is also observed in n rse cells and in the oocyte. Accumulation is germ cells is first seen at the anterior tip of the germarium. Similar intense staining is seen at the anterior tip of the testis. As with follicle cells, arm protein accumulates near or at the cell surface of germ cells but is not concentrated at any one position along the cell-cell interface. Protein accumulation appears to be heaviest where the nurse cell-nurse cell junction abuts the overlying follicle cells. It also accumulates in the cortical region of the oocyte. arm protein accumulates differentially in different follicle cells. Polar ollicle cells show more intense arm staining.

In wghs.P embryos, the arm protein distribution is quite different from that in wild-type embryos, being evenly distributed and showing intense staining throughout the embryo. In nkd mutant embryos, the pattern is similar to that in wghs.P embryos, but two additional rows of cells in the wg-expressing half of the parasegment are seen.

arm protein localizes to the apical surfaces of cells.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
located_in axon
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q8IMA8
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
located_in plasma membrane
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
located_in rhabdomere
inferred from direct assay
located_in zonula adherens
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{arm-lacZ.V}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GAL4-arm.S}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\arm in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 44 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 114 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of arm
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of arm
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 14 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adult cuticle & abdomen | somatic clone
dorsal mesothoracic disc & peripodial epithelium | somatic clone | cell autonomous, with Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PL
embryonic/first instar larval cuticle & denticle | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4da.G32
embryonic/first instar larval cuticle & denticle belt, with Scer\GAL4da.G32
nurse cell & actin filament
nurse cell & nucleus
nurse cell & nucleus | germ-line clone
oocyte & actin filament
sensory mother cell & dorsal mesothoracic disc | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4sd-SG29.1
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (14)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
1  
10 of 15
No
Yes
 
3  
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
3  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (14)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (9)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (10)
12 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (24)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (7)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (31)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (5)
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
2 of 12
Yes
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091902HS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501FM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01MX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01UJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G03A5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (7)
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 3 )
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 9 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 8 )
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Dmel gene
Ortholog showing functional complementation
Supporting References
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
RNA-RNA
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with Mer and Moe at the adherens junction (PubMed:8666669). Interacts with Inx2 (PubMed:15047872). Interacts with alpha-Cat (PubMed:25653389). Interacts with Myo31DF (PubMed:16598259, PubMed:22491943).
(UniProt, P18824 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a Wnt ligand to a frizzled family receptor on the cell surface. Activation of the pathway leads to the inhibition of cytoplasmic β-catenin (arm) degradation and its subsequent accumulation in the nucleus, where it regulates the transcription of target genes. (Adapted from FBrf0218499 and FBrf0223299).
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map
1-0.2
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:1,891,401..1,900,646 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
2B14-2B14
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1444&P{EP}CG14818EP1190 and P{EP}CG3600EP1232
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
2B-2B
(determined by in situ hybridisation) 2B7--10 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 2B1--14 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 2B13--18 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
2B-2B
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
2B7-2B10
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
2B15-2B15
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (59)
Genomic Clones (20)
cDNA Clones (514)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
Other clones
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of

Source for merge of: arm l(1)G0192 l(1)G0234

Source for merge of: arm l(1)G0410

Additional comments
Other Comments

dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene has been transfected into Kc cells.

dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene profoundly reduces the wg-signaling pathway.

Regulation of adhesion through arm Y667 phosphorylation is not essential for any arm dependent process during oogenesis, including border cell migration.

In order to activate pan protein, arm protein must enter the nucleus and form a complex with lgs and pygo proteins.

Nuclear localisation of arm is necessary for Wnt pathway activation.

dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells: cells become round and detached.

ci, tsh and arm may act as a complex.

Different combinations of the proteins ci, tsh and arm appear to be employed for the specification of naked cuticle at distinct positions both along the anterior posterior axis and within individual trunk segments.

arm does not play a general role in inhibiting cell migration or process extension.

arm and pan act together with JNK signalling pathways in both ventral patterning and dorsal closure.

fz and fz2 function downstream of wg and upstream of arm in the wg signalling pathway.

Membrane tethered arm cannot signal on its own, however it can function in adherens junctions.

Analysis of C-terminally truncated arm proteins suggests that the C-terminal domain of arm plays a complex role in wg signalling and the arm protein recruits the transcriptional machinery via multiple contact sites.

The arm/pan protein complex has a role in the activation of apoptosis during retinal development. Regulation of arm by Apc inhibits neuronal apoptosis during retinal development.

The pan gene product can function as either an activator or a repressor of wg-responsive genes depending on the state of the wg signalling pathway and thus the availability of arm, the pan product coactivator. In the absence of arm, pan acts to repress wg responsive genes, with the gro protein acting as a corepressor.

arm function in wg signal transduction is required early in neural development for determination of neuroblast fate. Later in neural development, the cell-cell adhesion function of arm is required for development of the correct axonal scaffold.

Ectopic wg expression non-cell autonomously induces vg expression in leg discs and activated arm (a cytosolic transducer of wg signalling) cell-autonomously induces vg expression, indicating that vg expression is directly activated by wg signalling.

Segment polarity gene expression is necessary for the survival of specific rows of epidermal cells.

Apc expression pattern and preliminary genetic analysis suggest that it may not be an essential component of arm regulation in the wg pathway.

wg signals through arm. wg can activate arm in a cell line.

A shg/arm complex has multiple functions for the regulation of organised cell adhesion events.

Mmus\Lef1 can form a stable complex with arm protein on the Ubx wg response sequence (WRS) and function in vivo depends on arm.

Some of the proteins of apico-lateral junctions are required both for apico-basal cell polarity and for the signalling mechanisms controlling cell proliferation, whereas others are required more specifically in cell-cell signalling.

pan functions directly downstream of arm in the establishment of segment polarity.

Adherens junctions cannot assemble in the absence of arm, leading to dramatic defects in cell-cell adhesion. Embryonic epithelial cells lose adhesion to each other, round up and apparently become mesenchymal. Mutant cells also lose their normal cell polarity. These disruptions in the integrity of the epithelia block the appropriate morphogenetic movements of gastrulation.

Embryos mutant for arm and sdt baz double mutant embryos have very similar early phenotypes with respect to zonula adherens formation. Results suggest that early stages in the assembly of the zonula adherens are critical for the stability of the polarised blastoderm epithelium.

The binding sites for shg and α-Cat are mapped, these bind independently of each other to arm and binding of each is required for the function of adherens junctions. arm is critical for wg signalling. arms roles in adherens junctions and wg signalling are independent.

Yeast two-hybrid system and in vivo assays have identified a 76 amino acid region of arm that is necessary and sufficient for binding α-Cat and also that the N-terminal 258 amino acids of α-Cat interact with arm. A large region of arm, spanning six central arm repeats, is required for shg binding, whereas only 41 amino acids of shg are sufficient for arm binding.

dsh and arm, but not sgg are required for heart formation.

arm is not required for wg self-refinement at the wing margin.

Overexpression of full length or truncated shg phenocopies wg. This is achieved by titrating arm away from a signalling function in the wg pathway.

arm mutations mimic all effects of a wg mutation. sgg, dsh and arm function to transmit the wg signal in the midgut in the same way as they do in the epidermis. Results suggest the wg signal transduction pathway acts in all three germ layers, the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.

Tethered arm has autonomous effects on the transcription of target genes.

The arm gene product is required for wg-dependent bristle inhibition.

The arm product has a role in cell-cell adhesion, gastrulation and epithelial sheet integrity.

The arm locus encodes a truncated 82kD isoform specific to the nervous system.

arm forms part of the multi-protein adherins junction complex and in this role is critical for cell adhesion and the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton. One domain of arm is made of 12 copies of a degenerate motif, named the armadillo repeat. This motif modulates protein protein interactions.

arm gene is indispensable for the transmission of the wg signal in distinct cells.

arm, dsh and sgg encode elements of a unique wg signalling pathway that is used several times throughout development.

Direct wg autoregulation differs from wg signalling to adjacent cells in the importance of fu, smo and ci relative to sgg and arm.

arm mutants display a disrupted actin cytoskeleton.

wg acts through dsh and arm to affect the expression of en and cuticle differentiation.

Comparisons of early development to that in other insects have revealed conservation of some aspects of development, as well as differences that may explain variations in early patterning events.

Endogenous arm is a phosphoprotein that demonstrates coupled phosphorylation of Ser/Tyr and Tyr in vivo. Phosphorylation is developmentally regulated and may play a role in wg signal transduction.

Cells alter their intracellular distribution of arm protein in response to wg signal, accumulating increased levels of cytoplasmic arm relative to those of membrane-associated protein. Levels of cytoplasmic arm are also regulated by sgg. Double mutant analysis demonstrates that arm's role in wg signalling is direct and that arm functions downstream of wg and sgg.

dsh and por act upstream of sgg, and arm acts downstream of sgg in the wg signalling pathway.

Cell culture assay of wg and arm gene expression demonstrates that the wg protein does not affect the rate of arm protein synthesis but presence of the wg protein causes increased stability of an otherwise rapidly decaying arm protein. wg protein from the co-culturing donor cells, in the extracellular matrix and soluble medium from donor cells also increases the levels of arm protein demonstrating that wg can act as a soluble extra cellular signalling molecule.

Germline arm mutations appear to disrupt processes requiring cell adhesion and integrity of the actin cytoskeleton, consistent with a role for the arm product in cell adhesive junctions.

The arm gene product is part of a membrane-associated complex. This complex includes α-Cat and the arm-associated glycoprotein, aagp. The arm product co-localizes with junctions that resemble vertebrate adherens junctions in morphology and position.

wg and en expression patterns are studied in all known segment polarity mutants to investigate the requirement of other segment polarity genes in mediating the maintenance of wg and en.

Ectopic uniform wg expression causes no change in the distribution of arm RNA, but protein distribution is quite different from that in wild type, being evenly distributed at high levels. nkd2 embryos have same pattern of arm RNA expression as those with uniform wg expression, but different protein distribution, with a high level all over, plus 2 stripes/segment where wg is expressed.

arm may play a role in cell-cell adhesive junctions.

A homolog of the arm plakoglobin in Drosophila may link E-cadherin to the underlying actin cytoskeleton at cell-cell junctions. This complex may also participate in the transmission of developmental information.

The role of arm gene expression in pattern formation in imaginal discs has been examined. Mutations in arm and wg have indistinguishable embryonic consequences: the timing and pattern of wg loss in arm mutants is very similar. Clonal tissue with reduced levels of arm activity will only survive in regions furthest from regions of high levels of wg RNA.

wg regulates accumulation of arm by post-transcriptional control, por and dsh are also required for this effect.

Role of arm in neurogenesis has been studied.

arm region has been molecularly cloned and characterised, the protein contains a series of novel repeats. arm RNA is abundant and uniformly distributed and expressed in a wide range of cell types in the embryo, unlike the transcript accumulation of other segment polarity genes.

A screen for X-linked genes that affect embryo morphology revealed arm.

Genetic mosaics were used to determine that arm is autonomous at the level of the single cell. arm gene activity is required for embryonic development at least until extended germ band stages.

arm mutants display mirror image duplication of denticle belts.

Embryonic lethal; embryonic segmentation defective by time of germ-band shortening; naked cuticle ordinarily comprising the posterior two thirds of each segment replaced by mirror-image duplication of the anteriorly situated denticle belt; strong alleles delete first denticle row in abdominal segments. May have dorsal hole in cuticle. Embryonic CNS development quasi normal (Patel et al., 1989). Autonomous at the level of single cells as shown by denticulate clones of homozygous cells in the naked cuticle of abdominal segments in arm/+ embryos (Wieschaus and Riggleman, 1987). Clones of homozygous female germ cells arrested at stage 10 of oogenesis (Wieschaus and Noell, 1986). An exception is arm8 for which progeny from homozygous germ-line clones have been recovered (Klingsmith et al., 1989). Cell lethal in imaginal discs; although clones of homozygous cells not observed in adults, their formation seems to engender mirror-image duplications, which are not seen in response to homozygosing other cuticular cell lethals (Wieschaus). Transcript found with minor fluctuations in amount, in all cell types at all stages in development (Riggleman, Wieschaus and Schedl, 1989).

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 118 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones