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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\B
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Bar
Annotation Symbol
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000154
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Contribute a Gene Snapshot for this gene.
Also Known As

BarH1

Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (6 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Summaries
    Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
    B: Bar
    thumb
    B: Bar
    Left: heterozygous female. Right: hemizygous male. From Sturtevant and Beadle, 1939. An Introduction to Genetics, Saunders, p. 24.
    Eye restricted to narrow vertical bar of about 90 facets in the male and 70 facets in the female, as contrasted with normal numbers of about 740 for males and 780 for females [Sturtevant, 1925, Genetics 10: 117-47 (fig.)]. Homozygous female fully viable. B/+ female has about 360 facets and shows indentation terminating in horizontal fissure on anterior margin of eye, producing a kidney-shaped eye. B/B and B/+ completely separable from wild type; in some genetic backgrounds, B/B overlaps B/+ slightly. Classifiable in single dose in triploids by slight anterior nick in eye (Schultz, 1934, DIS 1: 55); is useful in the recognition of triploids. Variegated position effect derivatives of BS(BSVY) exhibit nonmutant phenotypes in XY males but narrow eyes in XYY males; other enhancers of variegation, M(2)S10 and E(var)7, also shift phenotype toward normal (Brosseau, 1960, Genetics 45: 979). Eyes of female heterozygous for a deficiency for B and a normal X are normal (Sutton, 1943, Genetics 28: 97-107). Log of facet number inversely proportional to temperature of development (Hersh, 1930, J. Exp. Zool. 57: 283-306). Nonautonomous over short distances (Sturtevant, 1932, Proc. Intern. Congr. Genet., 6th, Vol. 1: 304-7). Facet development enhanced in organ culture by addition of wild type cephalic complexes [Kuroda and Yamaguchi, 1956, Jpn. J. Genet. 31: 97-102 (fig.)]. Disc size reduced; morphogenetic furrow absent; deep cleft at anterior margin of preommatidial cell clusters. Only four to five rows of clusters. Those at cleft edge look mature (Renfranz and Benzer, 1989, Dev. Biol. 136: 411-29). Cell death observed in anterior presumptive ommatidium-forming region of eye disc [D. Fristrom, 1969, Mol. Gen. Genet. 103: 363-79; 1972, Mol. Gen. Genet. 115: 10-18; Michinomae and Kaji, 1973, Jpn. J. Genet. 49: 353-71 (fig.); Michinomae, 1974, Jpn. J. Genet. 49: 353-71; 1976, Jpn. J. Genet. 51: 315-26 (fig.)]; high acid phosphatase levels characteristic of liposomal activity seen at same time (Michinomae, 1974, 1976). Reduction in facet number, increase in acid phosphatase activity, and cell death inhibited in larvae grown on medium supplemented with acetamide or lactamide (Kaji, 1954, Annot. Zool. Jpn. 27: 194-200; Fristrom, 1972; Michinomae and Kaji, 1973; Michinomae, 1974, 1976). Double amides more effective than single (DeMarinis and Sheibley, 1968, DIS 43: 138). Facet development responds strongly to environmental factors around 60 hr after oviposition (Luce, Quastler, and Chase, 1951, Genetics 36: 488-99). Pigmented but nonfaceted part of eye shows retinulae and dioptic apparatus lacking, but rudimentary ommatidia present, consisting of hypertrophied accessory cells (Wolsky and Huxley, 1936, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 485-89). Introduction of B into a strain of flies characterized by jumping in response to a sudden decrease in light intensity nearly eliminates response; response rescued by increasing facet number
    BB: Bar + Bar
    Eye more reduced than in B. Facet numbers are 25, 29, and 45 in BB/BB female, BB male, and BB/+ female, respectively. Median ocellus lacking or strongly reduced (Lefevre, 1941, DIS 14: 40). Optic disc reduced (Power, 1942, Genetics 27: 161); deep cleft anteriorly; cell clusters at cleft look mature (Renfranz and Benzer, 1989, Dev. Biol. 136: 411-29). RK1A.
    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    0
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    0
    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model
    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

     

    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
      Mapped Features

      Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\B using the Feature Mapper tool.

      External Data
      Crossreferences
      Linkouts
      Expression Data
      Expression Summary Ribbons
      Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
      For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
      Transcript Expression
      Additional Descriptive Data
      Marker for
       
      Subcellular Localization
      CV Term
      Polypeptide Expression
      Additional Descriptive Data
      Marker for
       
      Subcellular Localization
      CV Term
      Evidence
      References
      located_in nucleus
      inferred from direct assay
      Expression Deduced from Reporters
      High-Throughput Expression Data
      Associated Tools

      GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

      View Dmel\B in GBrowse 2
      RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
      Reference
      See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
      Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
      Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
      External Data and Images
      Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
      Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 70 )
      For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
       
      Other relevant insertions
      Transgenic Constructs ( 1 )
      For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
      Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of B
      Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of B
      Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 58 )
      Inferred from experimentation ( 58 )
      Inferred from location ( 0 )
        Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
        Phenotypes
        For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
        Lethality
        Allele
        Sterility
        Allele
        Other Phenotypes
        Allele
        Phenotype manifest in
        Allele
        Orthologs
        Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
        Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
        No records found.
        Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
        Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
        No records found.
        Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
        No records found.
        Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
        No records found.
        Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
        No records found.
        Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
        No records found.
        Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
        No records found.
        Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
        No records found.
        Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
        No records found.
        Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
        No orthologies identified
        Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
        No non-Drosophilid orthologies identified
        Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
        No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
        Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
        No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
        Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
        No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
        Paralogs
        Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
        Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
        No records found.
        Human Disease Associations
        FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
          Disease Model Summary Ribbon
          Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
          Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Evidence
          References
          Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
          Human Ortholog
          Disease
          Evidence
          References
          Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Interaction
          References
          Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
          Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
          Homo sapiens (Human)
          Gene name
          Score
          OMIM
          OMIM Phenotype
          DO term
          Complementation?
          Transgene?
          Functional Complementation Data
          Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
          Interactions
          Summary of Physical Interactions
          esyN Network Diagram
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          Selected Interactor(s)
          Interactions Browser

          Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
          protein-protein
          Physical Interaction
          Assay
          References
          Summary of Genetic Interactions
          esyN Network Diagram
          esyN Network Key:
          Suppression
          Enhancement

          Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
          Starting gene(s)
          Interaction type
          Interacting gene(s)
          Reference
          enhanceable
          suppressible
          suppressible
          Starting gene(s)
          Interaction type
          Interacting gene(s)
          Reference
          enhanceable
          External Data
          Linkouts
          DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
          MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
          Pathways
          Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
          Metabolic Pathways
          External Data
          Linkouts
          Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
          Chromosome (arm)
          Recombination map
          1-57.0
          Cytogenetic map
          Sequence location
          FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
          Cytogenetic map
          Evidence for location
          16A1-16A1
          Left limit from complementation mapping against Tp(1;1)B263-48 (FBrf0005979) Right limit from complementation mapping against Tp(1;1)B263-48 (FBrf0005979)
          Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
          Cytogenetic map
          Notes
          References
          16A1-16A2
          (determined by in situ hybridisation)
          Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
          Location

          1-57.0

          Left of (cM)
          Right of (cM)
          Notes
          Stocks and Reagents
          Stocks (682)
          Genomic Clones (0)
           
            cDNA Clones (0)
             

            Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

            cDNA clones, fully sequenced
            BDGP DGC clones
              Other clones
                Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

                For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

                  cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
                  BDGP DGC clones
                    Other clones
                      RNAi and Array Information
                      Linkouts
                      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
                      Antibody Information
                      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
                       

                      polyclonal

                      Commercially Available Antibodies
                       
                      Other Information
                      Relationship to Other Genes
                      Source for database identify of
                      Source for database merge of
                      Additional comments

                      Dp(1;3)DC329 (which encompasses B-H1) causes a Bar eye phenotype in males and females.

                      Dp(1;3)DC328 (which encompasses B-H2 but not B-H1) does not exhibit a Bar phenotype.

                      FlyBase curator comment: "EP1350" overexpression phenotype stated to be due to its effect on B but orientation of the P{EP} element suggests otherwise.

                      Derivatives of B with altered phenotypes, including reversions to normal phenotype, have been given allelic designations. These derivatives are summarized under the individual alleles. Unless otherwise indicated, fuller descriptions are found in Lindsley and Grell, 1968. Where tested the lethal alleles are cell lethal in cuticular spots. Different alleles of B that are not involved in gross chromosome aberrations can be combined in all pair-wise combinations by means of unequal crossing over in heterozygous females. Described combinations are B Bi, Bi B and Bi Bi (Sturtevant, 1925); Bi40b Bi40b (Steinberg, 1942); B B3, B B36b and B Bl (Muller).

                      Other Comments

                      lz controls svp and B expression in the developing eye disc, helping to define the fate of cells that arise from the second wave of mitotic division (R1/R6, R7 and cone cells).

                      The progression of the morphogenetic furrow in the developing eye disc arrests in a B mutant. The eye disc appears normal at the time of arrest. dpp expression is abolished (as assayed with a dpp-lacZ fusion gene).

                      Phenotypic variation of the genetic components underlying oviposition behaviour is analysed using the complete diallel mating design.

                      Position effect variegation dominantly suppressed by an allele of mod.

                      From successive unequal crossovers in attached X's, Rapoport (FBrf0005199; FBrf0005292) was able to accumulate as many as 7 or 9 B regions in a single chromosome. B is the first recorded instance of position effect. Presumably results from the new band association 16A7-16A1 and can be reversed by rearrangements that separate these bands. Also the first case of cis-trans position effect, two 16A7-16A1 associations in the same chromosome producing greater facet reduction than one association in each of two homologous chromosomes.

                      Homozygous female fully viable. B1/+ female has about 360 facets and shows indentation terminating in horizontal fissure on anterior margin of eye, producing a kidney-shaped eye. B1/B1 and B1/+ completely separable from wild type; in some genetic backgrounds, B1/B1 overlaps B1/+ slightly. Variegated position effect derivatives of Dp(1;Y)BS (Dp(1;Y)BSCV) exhibit nonmutant phenotypes in XY males but narrow eyes in XYY males. Disc size reduced; morphogenetic furrow absent.

                      This study raises the possibilty that B-H1, not B, is the Bar gene and that more than one gene may be involved in Bar position effects.

                      The Om(1D) gene of D.ananassae may be homologous to the Bar gene of D.melanogaster.

                      The B duplication breakpoint 16A7/16A1 and the roo-element are lost in the generation of wild type revertants of B1, BBasc and B3: the roo element is not involved in the generation of revertants.

                      Adult eye is small, narrow with about 150 facets. Ommatidia are usually normal. Eye disc size is reduced, due to precursor cell defects.

                      Introduction of B1 into a strain of flies characterized by jumping in response to a sudden decrease in light intensity nearly eliminates response; response rescued by increasing facet number through lactamide feeding during larval development.

                      Cell death observed in anterior presumptive ommatidium-forming region of eye disc. High acid phosphatase levels characteristic of liposomal activity seen at same time as cell death in eye disc. Reduction in facet number, increase in acid phosphatase activity and cell death in mutants are inhibited in larvae grown on medium supplemented with acetamide or lactamide.

                      Cell death observed in anterior presumptive ommatidium-forming region of eye disc. Reduction in facet number, increase in acid phosphatase activity and cell death in mutants are inhibited in larvae grown on medium supplemented with acetamide or lactamide.

                      Since B1 is a tandem duplication, B1 homozygotes may give rise to a nonduplicated chromosome (reversal to normal phenotype) and a triplicated chromosome (i.e., double Bar = BB) as reciprocal products of unequal crossing over.

                      Cell death observed in anterior presumptive ommatidium-forming region of eye disc.

                      Double amides are more effective than single at inhibiting reduction in facet number, increase in acid phosphatase activity and cell death in B mutants.

                      Enhancers of variegation Df(2R)M41A10 and E(var)7 shift the B mutant phenotype toward normal.

                      Facet development of mutants enhanced in organ culture by addition of wild type cephalic complexes.

                      Reduction in facet number, increase in acid phosphatase activity and cell death in mutants are inhibited in larvae grown on medium supplemented with acetamide or lactamide.

                      Eyes of female heterozygous for a deficiency for B and a normal X are normal.

                      Pigmented but nonfaceted part of eye shows retinulae and dioptic apparatus lacking, but rudimentary ommatidia present, consisting of hypertrophied accessory cells.

                      Classifiable in single dose in triploids by slight anterior nick in eye; is useful in the recognition of triploids.

                      Nonautonomous over short distances.

                      Log of facet number inversely proportional to temperature of development.

                      Eye restricted to narrow vertical bar of about 90 facets in the male and 70 facets in the female, as contrasted with normal numbers of about 740 for males and 780 for females.

                      Origin and Etymology
                      Discoverer

                      Tice, Feb. 1913.

                      Etymology
                      Identification
                      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 3 )
                      Other crossreferences
                      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
                      Linkouts
                      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
                      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
                      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (8)
                      Datasets (0)
                      Study focus (0)
                      Experimental Role
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                      Project Type
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                      References (232)