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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\dsh
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
dishevelled
Annotation Symbol
CG18361
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000499
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Required to establish coherent arrays of polarized cells and segments in embryos. Plays a role in wingless (wg) signaling, possibly through the reception of the wg signal by target cells and subsequent redistribution of arm protein in response to that signal in embryos. This signal seems to be required to establish planar cell polarity and identity. (UniProt, P51140)
Contribute a Gene Snapshot for this gene.
Also Known As

Disheveled, Dvl, l(1)G0267, l(1)10Bd

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:11,355,881..11,358,724 [+]
Recombination map
1-34
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:11355881..11358724
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (43 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:A1Z6W3
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q99MH6
(assigned by BHF-UCL )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q45VV3
(assigned by BHF-UCL )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:nkd; FB:FBgn0002945
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000093831
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (34 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (33 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in axon extension
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in cell migration
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in dorsal closure
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:fz; FB:FBgn0001085
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in heart formation
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:ck; FB:FBgn0000317
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:fz; FB:FBgn0001085
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Rok; FB:FBgn0026181
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:zip; FB:FBgn0287873
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in oogenesis
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:smo; FB:FBgn0003444
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:DAAM; FB:FBgn0025641
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000093945
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000591
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in apical cortex
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
located_in plasma membrane
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in cytosol
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000093945
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the DSH family. (P51140)
Summaries
Pathway (FlyBase)
Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a Wnt ligand to a frizzled family receptor on the cell surface. Activation of the pathway leads to the inhibition of cytoplasmic β-catenin (arm) degradation and its subsequent accumulation in the nucleus, where it regulates the transcription of target genes. (Adapted from FBrf0218499 and FBrf0223299).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Required to establish coherent arrays of polarized cells and segments in embryos. Plays a role in wingless (wg) signaling, possibly through the reception of the wg signal by target cells and subsequent redistribution of arm protein in response to that signal in embryos. This signal seems to be required to establish planar cell polarity and identity.
(UniProt, P51140)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
dsh: dishevelled
Most alleles lethal, but dsh1, although poorly viable as homozygous females or hemizygous males, appears to be fully viable when heterozygous to a deficiency for the region, suggesting that the reduced viability is unrelated to dsh1. dsh1 flies have deranged thoracic hairs, divergent and blistered wings, and ellipsoid eyes. Leg bristles, hairs, and bracts display high frequencies of abnormal polarity; extra joints or joint primordia found frequently in the first and second tarsal joints of the first and second pairs of legs; of 270 ectopic joints, 268 displayed inverted polarity [Held, Duarte, and Derakhshanian, 1986, Wilhelm Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 195: 145-57 (fig.)]. Males and females fertile, males weakly so. Homozygotes and hemizygotes for the lethal alleles die as second- to early-third-instar larvae when derived from heterozygous mothers; when derived from homozygous germ-line clones, on the other hand, embryos with segment-polarity defects result; only ventral cuticle is present, covered with a lawn of setae; lack dorsal cuticle, posterior spiracles and filzkorper material. At six to seven hours maxillary and labial segments appear to be missing and parasegmental boundaries do not form; cell death apparent in vicinity of tracheal pits, which subsequently fuse; segmental boundaries fail to form; organization of central nervous system seems normal. Loss of cells of posterior segment compartments leads to discontinued production of en+ product. Viability of dsh1/dsh3, for example, when derived from homozygous dsh3 oogenic clones, is normal, indicating that dsh1 is wild type for the early function.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\dsh for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

Gene model reviewed during 5.50

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0073454
2844
623
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

2.9, 2.6 (northern blot)

2.7 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0073310
68.9
623
6.29
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

623 (aa); 70 (kD observed)

623 (aa); 70 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Interacts with nkd. This interaction may require zinc.

(UniProt, P51140)
Post Translational Modification

Phosphorylated. Wg signaling generates the hyperphosphorylated active forms.

(UniProt, P51140)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\dsh using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in apical cortex
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
located_in plasma membrane
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{dsh.EGFP}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
cell | distal of arista

Comment: reference states 36 hr APF

High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\dsh in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 20 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 125 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of dsh
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of dsh
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 48 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 48 )
Gene not disrupted in
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adult thorax & microchaeta
axon & dorsal cluster neuron
embryonic leading edge cell & actin filament
embryonic leading edge cell & filopodium
embryonic leading edge cell & microtubule
leg & joint
macrochaeta & scutellum, with Scer\GAL4ptc-559.1
macrochaeta & wing
mesothoracic tergum & trichome
microchaeta & scutellum, with Scer\GAL4ptc-559.1
microchaeta & scutum, with Scer\GAL4rho-rhl
sensory mother cell & dorsal mesothoracic disc | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4sd-SG29.1
tarsal segment 1 & joint
tarsal segment 2 & joint
wing & macrochaeta
wing & triple row | somatic clone
wing hair & 1st posterior cell, with Scer\GAL4ptc-559.1
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
2  
12 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
 
0  
9 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
10 of 13
No
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (5)
12 of 12
Yes
Yes
10 of 12
No
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (7)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091907MD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091504FC )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0490 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X045K )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G041O )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 2 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 5 )
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Dmel gene
    Ortholog showing functional complementation
    Supporting References
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with nkd. This interaction may require zinc.
    (UniProt, P51140 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a Wnt ligand to a frizzled family receptor on the cell surface. Activation of the pathway leads to the inhibition of cytoplasmic β-catenin (arm) degradation and its subsequent accumulation in the nucleus, where it regulates the transcription of target genes. (Adapted from FBrf0218499 and FBrf0223299).
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-34
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:11,355,881..11,358,724 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    10B4-10B5
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG11756EP1610 and P{EP}CG32666EP1452
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    10B3-10B10
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    10B5-10B11
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (29)
    Genomic Clones (16)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (63)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: dsh CG1720

      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: dsh l(1)G0267

      Source for merge of: dsh CG18361

      Additional comments

      Source for merge of dsh CG18361 was sequence comparison ( date:001104 ).

      Other Comments

      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene.

      During development of the bristle lineage, Vang acts in the dividing sensillum precursor cells to exclude raps from the posterior cortex.

      dsh has a role in relocating Axn to the plasma membrane during wg signalling.

      The Vang/pk complex appears to modulate fz/dsh activity, resulting in a symmetry-breaking step during polarity signalling.

      dsh is necessary for the dorsal-ventral polarization of leading edge cells early in dorsal closure, in the absence of which actin-cable assembly and actin-based cell process formation fails to occur properly in these cells.

      Mutations in fz-like class of genes fz, pk, Vang, stan and dsh act as strong enhancers of weak in or fy phenotypes.

      Genetic analysis is not consistent with fz-like class of genes fz, pk, Vang, stan and dsh acting simply as positive or negative regulators of in and fy.

      dsh functions in both fz and fz2 signalling, but distinct dsh protein domains feature in the two pathways. Genetic and over-expression assays show that dsh protein activates JNK cascades.

      fz-mediated signalling provides polarity information to pI, specifying the orientation of mitotic spindles. The orientations of the pIIa and pIIb divisions are independent of fz signalling and are instead defined by the axis of the previous pI division.

      dsh activity suppresses dpp expression and promotes wg expression in the imaginal discs.

      Genetic interactions indicate that Rho1 has a role in signalling mediated by dsh.

      Planar polarity phenotypes of loss of function and overexpression of fz in the developing eye is studied, the phenotype is almost identical to loss of function or overexpression of dsh.

      Casein kinase II (encoded by CkIIα and CkIIβ) phosphorylates dsh in vitro. This phosphorylation is regulated by fz2, implicating a role for Casein kinase II in wg signalling.

      dsh interacts antagonistically with N and Dl. A physical interaction of the dsh product with the carboxy terminus of that of N suggests a basis for the interaction. Thus dsh, in addition to transducing wg signal, blocks N signalling directly, explaining the inhibitory cross talk observed between the pathways.

      The segment polarity phenotype of dsh mutant embryos is substantially rescued by Mmus\Dvl2. Normal segmentation is largely restored while restoration of the head skeleton is only partially rescued.

      dsh and arm, but not sgg are required for heart formation. Overexpression of dsh causes hypertrophy of heart precursors and rescues the heart and CNS deficit of wg mutants.

      dsh mutations mimic all effects of a wg mutation. sgg, dsh and arm function to transmit the wg signal in the midgut in the same way as they do in the epidermis. Results suggest the wg signal transduction pathway acts in all three germ layers, the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.

      wg is expressed in a narrow stripe at the wing margin, dsh is required in the cells responding to wg. Clones of dsh mutant tissue at the wing margin can block the response to wg. The wg signal can traverse several cell diameters of mutant tissue to reach responsive wing cells. Overexpression of dsh potentiates the response to wg, bristle formation is induced large distances from the site of wg expression. wg can signal over a large distance in a sensitized background.

      The dsh gene product is required for wg-dependent bristle inhibition, but is not absolutely essential for wg signalling in the eye.

      Clones of dsh mutant cells cause pattern duplications which mimic duplications caused by loss of wg function.

      dsh function is required for endogenous fz activity. fz activity is directly proportional to dsh gene dosage.

      dsh gene is indispensable for the transmission of the wg signal in distinct cells.

      dsh is not merely a permissive factor in wg signalling but encodes a novel signal transduction molecule which may function between the wg receptor and more downstream signaling molecules.

      arm, dsh and sgg encode elements of a unique wg signalling pathway that is used several times throughout development.

      The dsh gene product represents a novel signal transduction molecule generally required for the target cells to the wg signal.

      wg acts through dsh and arm to affect the expression of en and cuticle differentiation.

      dsh and por act upstream of sgg, and arm acts downstream of sgg in the wg signalling pathway. dsh acts upstream of sgg.

      dsh is required during wg signalling to establish both cell polarity and cell identity.

      wg and en expression patterns are studied in all known segment polarity mutants to investigate the requirement of other segment polarity genes in mediating the maintenance of wg and en.

      Phenotypic and mosaic analysis of dsh reveals functions in cellular responses to multiple positional signalling mechanisms in epidermal development.

      The role of segment polarity genes in arm protein accumulation has been investigated. wg regulates accumulation of arm by posttranscriptional control, por and dsh are also required for this effect.

      Most alleles lethal, but dsh1, although poorly viable as homozygous females or hemizygous males, appears to be fully viable when heterozygous to a deficiency for the region, suggesting that the reduced viability is unrelated to dsh1. dsh1 flies have deranged thoracic hairs, divergent and blistered wings and ellipsoid eyes. Leg bristles, hairs and bracts display high frequencies of abnormal polarity; extra joints or joint primordia found frequently in the first and second tarsal joints of the first and second pairs of legs; of 270 ectopic joints, 268 displayed inverted polarity [Held, Duarte and Derakhshanian, 1986). Males and females fertile, males weakly so. Homozygotes and hemizygotes for the lethal alleles die as second- to early-third instar larvae when derived from heterozygous mothers; when derived from homozygous germ-line clones, on the other hand, embryos with segment-polarity defects result; only ventral cuticle is present, covered with a lawn of setae; lack dorsal cuticle, posterior spiracles and filzkorper material. At six to seven hours maxillary and labial segments appear to be missing and parasegmental boundaries do not form; cell death apparent in vicinity of tracheal pits, which subsequently fuse; segmental boundaries fail to form; organization of central nervous system seems normal. Loss of cells of posterior segment compartments leads to discontinued production of en+ product. Viability of dsh1/dsh3, for example, when derived from homozygous dsh3 oogenic clones, is normal, indicating that dsh1 is wild type for the early function.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 110 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      MARRVEL_MODEL
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (17)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      CG1720
      Dsh
      (Ramanujam et al., 2021, Strutt and Strutt, 2021, Axelrod, 2020, Humphries et al., 2020, Kizhedathu et al., 2020, Mlodzik, 2020, Strutt et al., 2019, Humphries and Mlodzik, 2018, Sharma et al., 2018, Dewey and Johnston, 2017, Martins et al., 2017, Carvajal-Gonzalez et al., 2016, Chen et al., 2016, Gammons et al., 2016, Han et al., 2016, Schenkelaars et al., 2016, Strutt et al., 2016, Zhang et al., 2016, Galic and Matis, 2015, Hall and Verheyen, 2015, Schweisguth, 2015, Hsiao et al., 2014, Jenny and Basler, 2014, Mouri et al., 2014, Vuong et al., 2014, Abley et al., 2013, Ezan and Montcouquiol, 2013, Fischer et al., 2013, Hazelwood and Hancock, 2013, Khan et al., 2013, Lu and Johnston, 2013, Matis and Axelrod, 2013, Mbodj et al., 2013, Pancratov et al., 2013, Serysheva et al., 2013, Strutt et al., 2013, Wong et al., 2013, Zuo et al., 2013, Muñoz-Soriano et al., 2012, Nose, 2012, Singh and Mlodzik, 2012, Strutt et al., 2012, Axelrod and Tomlin, 2011, Buechling et al., 2011, Eivers et al., 2011, Fiedler et al., 2011, Hermle et al., 2011, Quijano et al., 2011, Strutt et al., 2011, Yanfeng et al., 2011, McNeill, 2010, Metcalfe et al., 2010, Mottola et al., 2010, Muñoz-Descalzo et al., 2010, Quijano et al., 2010, Usha and Shashidhara, 2010, Varelas et al., 2010, Nagaraj and Banerjee, 2009, Canela-Xandri et al., 2008, Chan et al., 2008, Chung et al., 2008, Jenny et al., 2008, Le Garrec and Kerszberg, 2008, Ma et al., 2008, Sánchez et al., 2008, Strutt and Warrington, 2008, Wu et al., 2008, Buceta et al., 2007, Chan et al., 2007, Jenny et al., 2007, Singh et al., 2007, Tolwinski, 2007, Wu and Mlodzik, 2007, Carmena et al., 2006, D'Hulst et al., 2006, He and Axelrod, 2006, Humbert et al., 2006, Mohit et al., 2006, Quaiser, 2006, Singla, 2006, Wharton et al., 2006, Wodarz et al., 2006, DasGupta et al., 2005, Cong et al., 2004, Matsubayashi et al., 2004, Torban et al., 2004, Weinmaster, 1997)
      dishevelled
      dsh
      (Akai et al., 2021, Kawamura et al., 2021, Marquilly et al., 2021, Beaver et al., 2020, Cho et al., 2020, Graves et al., 2020, Han et al., 2020, Li et al., 2020, Nye et al., 2020, Strutt and Strutt, 2020, Tu et al., 2020, Weiner et al., 2020, Yu et al., 2020, Domingos et al., 2019, Franco and Carmena, 2019, Shadkhoo and Mani, 2019, Shami Shah et al., 2019, Steinhauer et al., 2019, Strutt et al., 2019, Tian et al., 2019, Wang and Baker, 2019, Wu et al., 2019, Billmann et al., 2018, Dobens et al., 2018, Katanaev et al., 2018, Ressurreição et al., 2018, Saito-Diaz et al., 2018, Waghmare and Page-McCaw, 2018, Banerjee et al., 2017, Dai et al., 2017, Kaur et al., 2017, Tian et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Wang et al., 2017, Weber and Mlodzik, 2017, Dollar et al., 2016, Morimoto et al., 2016, Mottier-Pavie et al., 2016, Moulton and Letsou, 2016, Strutt et al., 2016, Tian et al., 2016, Wang et al., 2016, Yadav et al., 2016, Yuan et al., 2016, Besson et al., 2015, Gombos et al., 2015, Luo et al., 2015, Luo et al., 2015, Mannava and Tolwinski, 2015, Sugie et al., 2015, Yang and Mlodzik, 2015, Zhang et al., 2015, Gersten et al., 2014, Wang et al., 2014, Bonke et al., 2013, Khan et al., 2013, Schertel et al., 2013, Schertel et al., 2013, Sopko and Perrimon, 2013, Strutt et al., 2013, Strutt et al., 2013, Vandewalle et al., 2013, Yamamoto et al., 2013-, Zhu and Zhang, 2013, Capilla et al., 2012, Hainaut et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Kuroda et al., 2012, Muñoz-Soriano et al., 2012, Peng et al., 2012, Weber et al., 2012, Cho et al., 2011, Goodrich and Strutt, 2011, Goossens et al., 2011, Matsubara et al., 2011, McElwain et al., 2011, Mendoza-Topaz et al., 2011, Mirkovic et al., 2011, Peradziryi et al., 2011, Shimizu et al., 2011, Toku et al., 2011, Yanfeng et al., 2011, Djiane and Mlodzik, 2010, Egger-Adam and Katanaev, 2010, Folwell et al., 2010, Hermle et al., 2010, Ho et al., 2010, Kaplan and Tolwinski, 2010, Li et al., 2010, Metcalfe et al., 2010, Pataki et al., 2010, Popodi et al., 2010-, Ségalen et al., 2010, Singh et al., 2010, Singh et al., 2010, Varelas et al., 2010, Venken et al., 2010, Wang et al., 2010, Ayroles et al., 2009, Blanco et al., 2009, Chiang et al., 2009, Chung et al., 2009, Davidson et al., 2009, Fetting et al., 2009, Gomes et al., 2009, Perea et al., 2009, Simons et al., 2009, Steinel and Whitington, 2009, Zhu, 2009, Chen et al., 2008, Christensen et al., 2008.12.28, Christensen et al., 2008.12.28, Dahmann et al., 2008, Doyle et al., 2008, Lin et al., 2008, Miech et al., 2008, Strutt and Strutt, 2008, Todi et al., 2008, Weber et al., 2008, Wu et al., 2008, Baig-Lewis et al., 2007, Bastock and Strutt, 2007, Beltran et al., 2007, Bilic et al., 2007, Christensen and Cook, 2007.5.8, Christensen and Cook, 2007.5.8, Chung et al., 2007, DasGupta et al., 2007, da Silva and Vincent, 2007, Fiehler and Wolff, 2007, Harris and Beckendorf, 2007, Hatton-Ellis et al., 2007, Inaki et al., 2007, Jenny et al., 2007, König et al., 2007, Lawrence et al., 2007, Morais da Silva and Vincent, 2007, Rawls et al., 2007, Strutt and Strutt, 2007, Bartscherer et al., 2006, Colosimo and Tolwinski, 2006, del Alamo and Mlodzik, 2006, Gordon and Nusse, 2006, Jafar-Nejad et al., 2006, Jaiswal et al., 2006, Jordan et al., 2006, Joshi et al., 2006, Klein et al., 2006, Le Garrec et al., 2006, Lim and Tomlinson, 2006, Ma et al., 2006, Matusek et al., 2006, Mirkovic and Mlodzik, 2006, Price et al., 2006, Ren et al., 2006, Sato et al., 2006, Seto and Bellen, 2006, Shimada et al., 2006, Singh et al., 2006, Strutt et al., 2006, Waldrop et al., 2006, Zhang et al., 2006, Djiane et al., 2005, Furlong, 2005, Glise et al., 2005, Jenny et al., 2005, Macdonald and Long, 2005, Strutt and Strutt, 2005, Takada et al., 2005, Xie et al., 2005, Cliffe et al., 2004, Fanto and McNeill, 2004, Lim and Choi, 2004, Papadopoulou et al., 2004, He and Adler, 2002, Winter et al., 2001, Marsh et al., 2000)
      l(1)G17
      Name Synonyms
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0027244
      • FBgn0042225
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (808)