an β-alanyl-dopamine synthase regulating β-alanyl conjugation of dopamine and histamine, thus 'trapping' these biogenic amines preventing their further function - regulates pigmentation, photoreceptor activity and behavioral rhythmicity
Gene model reviewed during 5.39
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.49
There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene
879 (aa); 99 (kD predicted)
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\e using the Feature Mapper tool.
Expressed cyclically in the adult fat body.
Expressed on anterior side of tergite.
e transcripts are detected at all developmental stages on northern blots. An eFBtr0091350:pb-XREco/lacZ reporter construct was used to investigate expression in third instar larvae and adults. In adults, strong expression is observed in the lamina with weaker expression in the medulla. Weak staining is also observed in the central brain and thoracic ganglion. In third instar larvae, expression is observed in single cells distributed in two rows along the ventral ganglion and in restricted areas of the brain.
e protein is observed in many regions of the adult brain, with marked expression in the optic lobes. e protein is also detected in the antennal lobes, antennal nerves, subesophageal ganglion, and possibly the mushroom bodies. Co-labelling with antibodies to repo show that e expression is restricted to some, but not all, glial cells, and is cytoplasmic. e protein is expressed in the developing trachea in embryos. At stage 14-15, e protein is transiently expressed in bands at the borders of segments in the embryonic epidermal integument. Integumentary expression is not observed prior to embryonic stage 14. In pharate adults, strong e expression is observed in the esophagus epidermis, and in the ommatidial lens cuticle.
Expression of e is seen in two cells dorsolaterally in each embryonic segment 1 to 7. e expression was detected in all larval stages where it is preferentially located at the periphery of the brain hemispheres and in cells within the hemispheres, which are arranged in a crescent-shape. In the larval ventral ganglion, e-expressing cells are arranged in two rows, one each side of the ventral nerve cord. Expression of e is seen within pharate adults in a single cell at the distal border of the medulla.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\e in GBrowse 2
Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Source for identity of: e CG3331
Haploinsufficient locus (not associated with strong haplolethality or haplosterility).
e protein activates β-alanine to aminoacyladenylate by an adenylation domain and covalently attaches it as a thioester to a thiolation domain in a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) related mechanism. In a second reaction, biogenic amines act as external nucleophiles on β-alanyl-S-panthetheine-e, thereby releasing in a fast reaction the dipeptide (peptidoamine). e is therefore defined as a β-alanyl-biogenic amine synthetase.
Shows particularly robust cycling of transcription in adult heads, as assessed by expression analysis using high density oligonucleotide arrays with probe generated during three 12-point time course experiments over the course of 6 days.
Gene is involved in pre-replication DNA photorepair.
At temperatures ranging from 20oC to 37.5oC temperature sensitive mutants exhibit no effect on the heart rate of larvae.
The e phenotype is seen in progeny derived from adult fertile flies subjected to 31oC for 120 hours and in further generations.
Phenotypic variation of the genetic components underlying oviposition behaviour is analysed using the complete diallel mating design.
Homozygous e mutants exhibit a variety of locomotor rhythm anomalies in constant darkness and cycles of light. Eclosion rhythms are indistinguishable from wild type.
Molecular cloning of the 93C--93D region has allowed probable identification of the ebony gene.
Mutant alleles are useful as markers in clonal analysis.
Body color varies from shining black to slightly darker than wild type, depending on allele. Puparia much lighter than wild type. Classifiable throughout larva period by darkened color of spiracle sheaths (Brehme, 1941). Viability lowered to about 80% wild type. Heterozygotes for dark alleles have slightly darker body color than normal. For interaction with other body color mutants, see Waddington (1941). Postulated to encode β-alanyl dopamine synthetase, a 90kD enzyme that requires ATP and MgCl2 to catalyze the formation of N-β-alanyl dopamine from β alanine and dopamine; β alanyl dopamine absent from newly eclosed e flies (Wright, 1987); β alanine and dopamine accumulate in pupae and pharate adults, dopamine to twice normal levels, in e and e11 homozygotes; levels return to normal in older adults (Hodgetts, 1972; Hodgetts and Konopka, 1973). Unable to utilize β alanine in tanning of puparium. Labeled β alanine or uracil injected into e pupae remains in hemocoel, not incorporated into pupal case as in +; light-colored pupa result; e/+ intermediate in these respects. Only newly emerged + adults incorporate uracil or β alanine into cuticle; e flies and older + flies do not; β alanine toxic to the latter two types (Jacobs, 1968). Defect in tanning leads to spongey cuticle which responds to β alanine administration (Jacobs, 1980). Phenylthiocarbamide inhibits development of e11 homozygotes more than wild type; reverse is true for inhibition by silver chloride; heterozygotes intermediate in both cases. Mixtures of the two inhibitors affect heterozygotes to a greater extent (Kroman and Parsons, 1960). Electroretinograms of e flies abnormal; lamina potential reduced or absent (Hotta and Benzer, 1969). Threshold for phototaxis 200-fold higher than that for wild type; high sensitivity (retinulae 1-6) optomotor threshold 500 times normal and high acuity (retinulae 7 and 8) optomotor threshold ten times normal [Heisenberg, 1972). e flies more sensitive to polarized light than wild type (Heisenberg, 1972). Abnormal distribution of uptake of 3H-GABA by the lamina ganglionaris described (Campos-Ortega, 1974). Reduced mating success compared to wild type (Rendel, 1951). Courtship frequently aborts owing to mismounting by male (Crossley and Zuill, 1971); relative mating success increased in dark (Kyriacou, 1981) but not according to Crossley (1970). Courtship shows deficiency in wing vibration; low proportion of sine song and long intrapulse interval; e/+ outsings +/+ (Kyriacou, Burnet and Connolly, 1978).
E. M. Wallace, 15th Feb. 1912.