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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Gpdh1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1
Annotation Symbol
CG9042
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0001128
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (Gpdh1) encodes a glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of glycerol-3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. It is involved in triglyceride metabolism, response to hyperoxia and flight behavior. [Date last reviewed: 2019-09-26] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

Gpdh, αGpdh, α-Gpdh, Glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:5,943,643..5,948,968 [+]
Recombination map
2-18
RefSeq locus
NT_033779 REGION:5943643..5948968
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (16 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000919759
(assigned by GO_Central )
enables NAD binding
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR011128, InterPro:IPR017751
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR017751
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (9 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by CACAO )
involved_in flight behavior
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR006109
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR011128
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000198006
(assigned by GO_Central )
involved_in NADH oxidation
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000919759
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytosol
inferred from direct assay
located_in M band
inferred from direct assay
located_in Z disc
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytosol
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000198006
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR006168
(assigned by InterPro )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase family. (P13706)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (Gpdh1) encodes a glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of glycerol-3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. It is involved in triglyceride metabolism, response to hyperoxia and flight behavior. [Date last reviewed: 2019-09-26]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
GLYCEROL-3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASES (NAD+) -
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (NAD+) catalyze the oxidation of glycerol-3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate, with concurrent reduction of NAD+ to NADH2.
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Gpdh: α-Glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase
The structural gene for α glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) [α GPDH (EC 1.1.1.8)], a homodimer with subunit molecular weight 31700 (Collier, Sullivan, and MacIntyre, 1976, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 429: 316-23). Purification and structural analysis of enzyme by Niesel, Bewley, Miller, Armstrong, and Lee (1980, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 4073-80). Three isozymes designated GPDH-1, GPDH-2, and GPDH-3 in order of decreasing rate of migration toward the anode (Wright and Shaw, 1968, Biochem. Genet. 3: 343-53). The three forms respond alike to electrophoretic alleles, null alleles, and dosage of Gpdh+ (Bewley, Rawls, and Lucchesi, 1974, J. Insect. Physiol. 20: 153-75); all three are products of the same structural gene for developmental profile (see Bewley, 1981, Dev. Genet. 113-29). GPDH-1 first appears in late pupae and is present in high concentration in the adult thorax where it functions to provide energy for flight muscles; GPDH-2 also appears in late pupae and is present in low concentration throughout the fly; GPDH-3 is present throughout the life cycle; it is concentrated in the larval fat body (Rechsteiner, 1970, J. Insect. Physiol. 16: 1179-92) and the adult abdomen (Wright and Shaw); GPDH-1 and GPDH-3 present in equal amounts in adult head. Product of paternally inherited allele first appears at 22 hr, just before hatching of larva (Wright and Shaw). GPDH-1 is stable at 50 but decays at 57; GPDH-3 is labile at 50 (Bewley et al.). Studies by Bewley and Luccesi indicate the presence of a heat-labile RNase-resistant factor in crude larval extracts able to convert GPDH-1 into GPDH-2 and GPDH-3 but not vice versa; GPDH-3 lacks three C-terminal amino acids present on GPDH-1 (Niesel, Bewley, Miller, Armstrong, and Lee, 1980, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 4073-80). Homozygotes for null alleles are fertile, show reduced viability, and are unable to sustain flight (O'Brien and MacIntyre, 1972, Genetics 71: 127-38); ultrastructural integrity of flight muscle sarcosomes degenerates prematurely [O'Brien and Shimada, 1974, J. Cell Biol. 63: 864-82 (fig.)]. Homozygous stocks maintained for 25 generations regain the ability to fly despite continued absence of GPDH activity (O'Brien and Shimada).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
6
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Gpdh1 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.53

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.39

Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated

Gene model reviewed during 5.56

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0079148
1734
350
FBtr0079146
1651
360
FBtr0079147
1631
353
FBtr0333228
1801
350
FBtr0333229
2503
360
FBtr0333230
2078
353
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.6 (northern blot)

1.7 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0078779
38.3
350
6.59
FBpp0078777
39.3
360
6.59
FBpp0078778
38.6
353
6.59
FBpp0305430
38.3
350
6.59
FBpp0305431
39.3
360
6.59
FBpp0305432
38.6
353
6.59
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

360 aa isoforms: Gpdh1-PB, Gpdh1-PF
353 aa isoforms: Gpdh1-PC, Gpdh1-PG
350 aa isoforms: Gpdh1-PA, Gpdh1-PE
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

866 (aa)

360, 353, 350 (aa); 39, 38 (kD predicted)

360, 353, 350 (aa)

Comments

The quantities of six out of seven enzymes tested

were higher in AdhF homozygotes than in AdhS homozygotes. Levels

were significantly higher at the 0.001 level for Adh, Gapdh1, and

Pgm and higher at the 0.05 level for Gpdh. Idh levels were not

increased in AdhF flies.

One of several products generated by alternative splicing.

External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Homodimer.

(UniProt, P13706)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Gpdh1 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RNase protection, primer extension, SI map
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Transcript levels increase 3-fold when dietary sucrose is raised from 0.1% to 10%. Transcript levels also increase with dietary glucose and starch but not fructose. Ethanol has no effect on transcript abundance.

Transcript levels increase 10-fold when dietary sucrose is raised from 0.1% to 10%. Transcript levels also increase with dietary glucose, starch or ethanol but no effect on transcript levels is observed in response to increase fructose. Sucrose and ethanol combined have no additive effect on transcript levels.

Gpdh transcripts containing terminal exon 6 are detected in larval and adult RNA.

Gpdh transcripts containing terminal exon 7 are detected in larval and adult RNA.

Gpdh transcripts containing terminal exon 8 are detected in adult RNA.

Different Gpdh transcripts and isoforms are generated by alternate splicing at the 3' end of the gene. Transcripts containing terminal exon 7 are abundant in larvae and are present at lower levels in adults.

Different Gpdh transcripts and isoforms are generated by alternate splicing at the 3' end of the gene. Transcripts containing terminal exon 8 are detected weakly in larvae and adults.

Different Gpdh transcripts and isoforms are generated by alternate splicing at the 3' end of the gene. Transcripts containing terminal exon 9 are abundant in adults and are not detected in larvae.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Glycolytic enzymes, including Gpdh protein are localized to M bands and Z discs, as visualized in the isolated myofibrils of flight muscles, where immunoreactivity appears as alternating bright and less-intense bands.

Gpdh activityincreases nearly fourfold when dietary sucrose is increase from 0.1% to10%. Glucose, fructose, or starch at a 5% concentration also lead to a2-3-fold increase in Gpdh activity. Gpdh activity increases withincreasing ethanol. Sucrose and ethanol together have an additive effecton Gpdh activity.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytosol
inferred from direct assay
located_in M band
inferred from direct assay
located_in Z disc
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Gpdh1 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 126 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 25 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Gpdh1
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Gpdh1
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 14 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
1  
12 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
10 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
12 of 12
Yes
Yes
9 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
No
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (4)
8 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190AR3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150496 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W041Z )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X03YL )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0DO6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (5)
8 of 10
4 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 3 )
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homodimer.
(UniProt, P13706 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
FlyCyc Pathways - Pathways from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2L
Recombination map
2-18
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:5,943,643..5,948,968 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
26A3-26A3
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}bchsEP2299&P{EP}GpdhEP466 and P{lacW}chick13321
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
26A-26A
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
26A1-26B1
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
25F5-25F5
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Segmental aneuploids (unspecified) produced flies duplicated for region 50C-52E that exhibit elevated Gpdh activity.
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Notes

Mapping based on 422 recombinants.

Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (28)
Genomic Clones (22)
cDNA Clones (201)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of

Source for identity of: Gpdh1 Gpdh

Source for database merge of
Additional comments
Other Comments

Alleles whose expressed products have 50-100% GPDH activity show an average relative viability of 51.6%. There is no significant effect between flies with different combinations of Gpdh alleles on the response of triglyceride and glycogen pools to starvation and refeeding treatments, when the activity of the expressed Gpdh products is as low as 10%.

Mutation rate at microsatellite loci in 119 lines maintained for approximately 250 generations is estimated to be 6.3x10-6, at least one order of magnitude lower than the mutation rate in mammals.

Most of the coding region and interventing intron sequences of Gpdh have been sequenced from 18 fruit fly species, to study the evolution of the Gpdh gene.

The effect of environmental ethanol on larval to pupal survival and on the activities of Fdh, Aldox-1, Adh and Gpdh is investigated.

At least a substantial fraction of three glycolytic enzymes of flight muscle cells are found colocalised at the Z-discs and M-lines, glycolytic enzyme colocalisation is interdependent. Localisation of Gapdh1, Gapdh2 and Ald at the Z-discs and M-lines requires the presence of at least Gpdh at the Z-discs and M-lines.

The rate of evolution of Gpdh has been investigated by comparing the Gpdh sequences of a number of different species.

DNA sequence analysis demonstrates the change in electrophoretic mobility in each of the six naturally occurring but rare ultra fast alleles of Gpdh are caused by a single amino acid residue substitution in the encoded protein.

Gpdh enzyme activity has been measured in D.melanogaster lines in which spontaneous mutations have accumulated over approximately 300 mutations.

The effects of a high sucrose diet on live weight, total protein, stored lipid and glycogen and crude activities of 12 enzymes involved in energy metabolism are quantified. The activities of many enzymes are reduced by the sucrose treatment.

Significant genotypic variation exists in starvation resistance for the Adh and Gpdh loci and interactions between them. Starvation resistance is proportionally correlated with triglycerides content. No genotypic variation was seen in oxygen consumption.

Analysis of the cause of Gpdh null mutations that arose in mutation accumulation experiments reveals the null mutation rate at the locus is largely influenced by P-elements.

Distribution of allele frequencies at seven polymorphic loci in 12 natural Indian populations studied: frequencies of particular alleles at Zind\Acph-1, Zind\Acph-2, Zind\Mdh1, Zind\Ao, Zind\Adh and Gpdh are positively correlated with latitude.

Pattern of allele frequency has been studied for seven loci, Aph-3, Est-6, Adh, Fdh, Aldox-1, Gpdh and Mdh1, in wild Indian populations of D.melanogaster : the allelic frequency patterns do not agree with those from temperate region populations.

Polymorphism of electrophoretic forms of Adh and α-Gpdh has been studied in 11 natural populations of drosophilids. Polymorphism was higher for Adh than for α-Gpdh.

Widespread category of low-activity variant with reduced transcription of Gpdh were shown to have P elements inserted between the TATA box and the transcription start site: the target site for all the insertions is GTGCAAAC.

Gramoxone has no mutagenic effect on the genetic background of Gpdh.

Distribution of polymorphisms at Adh and Gpdh, and for In(2L)t have been studied in populations from the Republic of Panama. In(2L)t was always found to be associated with AdhS/GpdhA allele combination.

The synergistic effects of the Adh locus, or a tightly linked locus, on the quantities of the Mdh1, Gpdh, Pgm, Idh, Men and Gapdh1 gene products in D.melanogaster derived from an African population has been determined.

An investigation of the role of temperature resistance in the world-wide cline of Adh and Gpdh allele frequencies demonstrated that allele frquencies cannot simply be explained by genotypic differences in resistance to high temperatures.

No difference in allele fixed in lines selected over 700 generations for high (negative) and low (positive) geotaxis.

The Gpdh locus in the Cardwell population has been assessed and found to carry a duplication in one third of the lines, these lines have a higher level of Gpdh gene activity. The duplication is incomplete and lacks exons 1 and 2, and can also be found in populations from Chinese and Africa. Three insertions are present in the gene region, only one affected Gpdh activity.

Characterization of the 26A region has identified the Gpdh transcription unit at the 26A5-26A7 region.

The interactions of Adh and Gpdh genotypes with different temperature (20--29oC) was studied for changes in developmental time, adult weight, protein content of adult males and triglyceride content of adult males.

Modulation of Gpdh, Ald, Pgk and RpL32 proteins and their transcript levels was investigated in larvae.

Gpdh has been cloned and sequenced.

A shift in third-codon-nucleotide frequency is seen when comparing species of the two subgenera Drosophila and Sophophora. This data is comparable to codon usage of Gpdh in D.melanogaster. The reason for the shift in codon usage is unknown.

A strong linkage disequilibrium due to the presence of the inversion In(2L)t was found between the Adh and Gpdh loci in a seminatural population kept in a tropical greenhouse for a prolonged period. The inversion frequency increased at high temperatures accompanied by an increase in AdhS and GpdhA frequency. Selection is a likely cause of any changes that occurred, mediated by average temperature and selection acting on the chromosomal rearrangement and hitchhiking of the allozymes.

The relative viability of Gpdh/Gpo double mutants has been studied to determine certain interactions between Gpdh and Gpo.

Adh and Gpdh null alleles have been detected in Australian populations at frequencies up to 3.9%.

Gpdh protein expression during different stages of development has been studied.

The effect of dietary sucrose and ethanol on Gpdh activity in the third larval instar has been studied.

Allelic frequencies have been determined between European and African populations. African populations show a greater genetic diversity, as measured by the number of alleles found. Within each geographic group there is a homogeneity of allele frequencies.

Gpdh activity is modified by r(αGPDH)1.

No linkage disequilibrium has been detected between Gpdh, Mdh1, Adh, Hex-C, Est-C or Fdh.

A series of Gpdh-Gpo double mutants were constructed by Davis and MacIntyre (1988); four of these mutants were found to be viable and flightless; two others were allele-dependent synthetic lethals. A trans-acting regulatory element tightly linked to the Gpdh locus has been isolated in a natural population of D.melanogaster in Tasmania (Gibson, Wilks, Cao and Freeth, 1986). Flies homozygous for second chromosomes carrying the element (designated H31) have half the GPDH activity of normal homozygotes.

The structural gene for α glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) (α GPDH), a homodimer with subunit molecular weight 31700 (Collier, Sullivan and MacIntyre, 1976). Natural populations are polymorphic for electrophoretic variants as well as for regulatory elements that determine enzyme level; induced electromorphs have also been recovered. There are a number of spontaneous and induced amorphic and hypomorphic alleles. Purification and structural analysis of enzyme by Niesel, Bewley, Miller, Armstrong and Lee (1980). Three isozymes designated GPDH-1, GPDH-2, and GPDH-3 in order of decreasing rate of migration toward the anode (Wright and Shaw, 1968). The three forms respond alike to electrophoretic alleles, null alleles and dosage of Gpdh+ (Bewley, Rawls and Lucchesi, 1974); all three are products of the same structural gene for developmental profile (see Bewley, 1981). GPDH-1 first appears in late pupae and is present in high concentration in the adult thorax where it functions to provide energy for flight muscles; GPDH-2 also appears in late pupae and is present in low concentration throughout the fly; GPDH-3 is present throughout the life cycle; it is concentrated in the larval fat body (Rechsteiner, 1970) and the adult abdomen (Wright and Shaw, 1968); GPDH-1 and GPDH-3 present in equal amounts in adult head. Product of paternally inherited allele first appears at 22 hr, just before hatching of larva (Wright and Shaw, 1968). GPDH-1 is stable at 50oC but decays at 57oC; GPDH-3 is labile at 50oC (Bewley et al.). Studies by Bewley and Lucchesi indicate the presence of a heat-labile RNase-resistant factor in crude larval extracts able to convert GPDH-1 into GPDH-2 and GPDH-3 but not vice versa; GPDH-3 lacks three C-terminal amino acids present on GPDH-1 (Niesel, Bewley, Miller, Armstrong and Lee, 1980). Homozygotes for null alleles are fertile, show reduced viability and are unable to sustain flight (O'Brien and MacIntyre, 1972); ultrastructural integrity of flight muscle sarcosomes degenerates prematurely (O'Brien and Shimada, 1974). Homozygous stocks maintained for 25 generations regain the ability to fly despite continued absence of GPDH activity (O'Brien and Shimada, 1974).

Origin and Etymology
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External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 90 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
FlyCyc Pathways - Pathways from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (44)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
α-GPDH-1
Name Synonyms
Alpha-Glycerophosphate dehydrogenase
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1
glycerophosphate dehydrogenase
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
α glycerophosphate dehydrogenase
α glycerophosphate dehydrogenase 1
α-glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase
α-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
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    References (377)