Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\gt
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
giant
Annotation Symbol
CG7952
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0001150
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
giant (gt) encodes a transcription factor in the basic leucine zipper family. It is one of the "gap" transcription factors, transcribed very early in embryonic development, that help to divide the embryo along the anteroposterior axis. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

EG:BACH7M4.5

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:2,427,113..2,428,967 [-]
Recombination map
1-1
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:2427113..2428967
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (18 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN004331295
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN004331295
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (12 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in axon guidance
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN004331295
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in nucleus
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000945219
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the bZIP family. (P39572)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
giant (gt) encodes a transcription factor in the basic leucine zipper family. It is one of the "gap" transcription factors, transcribed very early in embryonic development, that help to divide the embryo along the anteroposterior axis. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
BASIC LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that regulate transcription. They are characterized by a 60-80 amino acid bZIP domain: a basic DNA binding domain followed by a leucine zipper dimerization domain. (Adapted from FBrf0152056).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Represses the expression of both the krueppel and knirps segmentation gap genes. Binds, in vitro, to the krueppel regulatory elements CD1 and CD2. It is required in the early embryo for the development of portions of the head and abdomen.
(UniProt, P39572)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
gt: giant
thumb
gt: giant
Left: wild type female. Right: giant female. From Bridges and Gabritschevsky, 1928, Z. Indukt. Abstamm. Vererbungsl. 46: 231-47.
Larval development 4 days longer than normal resulting in giant larvae, pupae, and imagos. Adult weight 1.7 times normal; increased size caused by increase in cell size and not cell number [Simpson and Morata, 1980, Development and Neurobiology of Drosophila (Siddiqi, Babu, Hall and Hall, eds.). Plenum Press, New York and London, pp. 129-40]. Pupariation delayed owing to delayed increase in ecdysteroid titers; level reached at pupariation lower than normal; pupal interval of normal length (Schwartz, Imberski, and Kelly, 1984, Dev. Biol. 103: 85-95). Not all genetically giant flies show the giant character, the rest have normal size; distribution sharply bimodal. Percentage giant greatest in well-fed cultures, also raised by modifying action of bb11. Penetrance of viable alleles enhanced in heterozygotes with lethal alleles and deficiencies; viability decreased (Kaufman, 1972, Genetics 71: s28-29). Abnormalities in DNA metabolism found in homo- or heteroallelic third instar gt females (Narachi and Boyd, 1985). Salivary gland chromosomes of double thickness in some cells (Bridges, 1935, J. Heredity 26: 60-64). Feulgen staining shows extra round of DNA synthesis; polytene chromosome can be analyzed in gt/Df larvae (Kaufman, 1972, Genetics 71: s28-29). Embryos carrying lethal giant mutations have defects in the anterior and the posterior domains (Petschek et al., 1987; Mohler et al., 1989). Posterior compartment of the labial segment deleted from blastoderm; cell death at germ-band elongation deletes anterior compartments of abdominal segments 5-7. Posterior-compartment structures of A5-7 in the peripheral nervous system fuse in mature embryos (Petschek and Mahowald). Hemizygotes for lethal alleles, gt13z and gtX11, fail to hatch (Kaufman, 1973, Genetics 74: s133); denticle belts of the fifth through the seventh abdominal segments partially or completely absent; internally corresponding neuromeres absent; eight abdominal neuromeres disconnected from remainder. Head does not complete involution, shows characteristic "buttonhead" phenotype with ventral skeleton extruded from the anterior end of the larva (Mohler et al., 1989), pharynx and pharyngeal chitinized sclerites shorter, and brain lobes somewhat smaller than normal; extensive cell death in epidermal and neural components of embryo (Honisch and Campos-Ortega, 1982, DIS 58: 76-77). Effect cell autonomous in mosaic embryos. (Gergen and Wieschaus, 1986, Wilhelm Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 195: 49-62). Germline clones viable (Garcia-Bellido and Robbins, 1983, Genetics 103: 235-47). gt stocks (homo- or heteroallelic) show an increase in the frequency of spontaneous mutations, including deletions of y and w loci (Green, 1982, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 5367-69); these stocks also synthesize DNA of a reduced molecular weight and show many single-strand and double-strand breaks, suggesting abnormalities in DNA metabolism (Narachi and Boyd, 1985). RK3.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

transcription factor - basic leucine zipper - gap gene - regulates ecdysone production through specification of the PTTH-producing neurons

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\gt for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.51

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0070460
1780
448
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.8 (unknown)

1.9 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0070444
49.2
448
9.53
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

448 (aa); 49 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Homodimer or heterodimer.

(UniProt, P39572)
Post Translational Modification

Phosphorylated at multiple sites.

(UniProt, P39572)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\gt using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

dorsal ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

head mesoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

mesoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

ventral ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

crystal cell primordium

Comment: reported as crystal cell specific anlage

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalon primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalon primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalon primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalon primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalon primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalon primordium

plasmatocyte primordium

Comment: reported as plasmatocytes anlage

Additional Descriptive Data

gt mRNA is distributed asymmetrically with respect to its protein product in embryos. The posterior border of the gt mRNA domain is located anteriorly relative to the protein border. The posterior gt mRNA reaches its maximum expression in early cycle 14A and then sharply declines, while protein levels remain high until gastrulation.

gt expression exhibits dynamic changes during nuclear cycle 14. It moves from two large domains to four stripe-like domains, while the seven striped pair-rule patterns are progressively being formed. However, the spatial relationships between gt boundaries and specific pair-rule stripes boundaries remain almost unchanged. Thus, in the anterior region, gt is always separated from run 2, ftz 2, and h 3, while it adjoins eve 2. In the posterior region, gt is separated from h 5, it adjoins eve 5, and it partially overlaps with run 5 and ftz 5.

gt is expressed at the anterior lip of the ventral furrow, and in three stripes on the embryonic head, corresponding to the future ventral furrow lip, the future epipharynx and the future hypopharynx.

gt transcript is detected in three domains, one which spans between 20% and 40% egg length in the posterior, and two in the anterior, one of which reaches 10% egg length and one between 15% and 50% egg length.

gt transcripts are expressed predominantly in 2-4 hr embryos. They are expressed in two broad regions in embryonic cycle 12 extending from 60-82% egg length and 0-33% egg length. Later the posterior band narrows and a new anterior band forms from 91-97% egg length. The pattern resolves into 4 stripes, 5-6 cells wide at the cellular blastoderm stage. Cells in these stripes of expression become part of the clypeolabrum, procephalic lobe, anterior midgut invagination, and cephalic furrow. The pattern of gt expression in the posterior end of the embryo is altered in Kr, hb, and kni mutants. No change in pattern was seen in eve mutants.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

gt mRNA is distributed asymmetrically with respect to its protein product in embryos. The posterior border of the gt mRNA domain is located anteriorly relative to the protein border. The posterior gt mRNA reaches its maximum expression in early cycle 14A and then sharply declines, while protein levels remain high until gastrulation.

In stage 14 embryos, gt is expressed in two neurons in the lateral portion of each brain lobe the may be either the PG neurons or precursors to the PG neurons. This expression fades by late embryogenesis. No evidence for gt expression in larval or embryonic prothoracic glands or in larval PG neurons was observed.

gt protein is first detected at the end of nuclear cycle 12 in nuclei in two distinct domains of the embryo. By cellular blastoderm, the pattern has evolved into expression in one posterior and three anterior stripes. After cellular blastoderm, gt continues to be expressed in the head region in parts of the maxillary and mandibular segments as well as in the labrum. At stage 9, transient expression is seen in the pole cells. After stage 9, all gt expression is restricted to regions of the embryo anterior to the posterior boundary of the maxillary segment. Expression persist in certain head structures including the ring gland until the end of embryonic development.

In blastoderm embryos, the anterior domain of gt protein expression extends to the anterior limit of eve stripe 2, while the posterior domain of gt expression extends from the posterior border of eve stripe 5 to the anterior border of eve stripe 7.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\gt in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 37 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 59 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of gt
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of gt
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 78 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 78 )
Gene disrupted in
Gene not disrupted in
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
larval salivary gland & embryo & nuclear chromosome
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (10)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
3 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
2  
1 of 15
No
No
2  
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
3 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (9)
2 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (10)
2 of 12
Yes
No
2 of 12
Yes
No
2 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (18)
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (8)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190FDJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150AIF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (5)
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Homodimer or heterodimer.
    (UniProt, P39572 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-1
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:2,427,113..2,428,967 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    3A3-3A3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1605 and P{EP}CG32796EP1385&P{EP}EP1160
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    3A1-3A1
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (24)
    Genomic Clones (12)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (10)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: gt CG7952

    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments

    Wieschaus et al. (1984) report eight embryonic lethal alleles, of which four are weak; these exhibit defects in head and in fifth through seventh abdominal segments.

    Other Comments

    DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for gt protein in 2-3 hr embryos; see BDTNP1_TFBS_gt collection report.

    S2 cells treated with dsRNA generated against this gene show reduced phagocytosis of Candida albicans compared to untreated cells.

    Mutations in gt cause defects in the labial segment (the most posterior cephalic segment), and in the labral segment (the most anterior cephalic segment, adjacent to the unsegmented anterior tip).

    Mutant embryos lack the corpus cardiacum.

    In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.

    The gt transcriptional repressor defines the anterior border of stripe 2 of eve. A single gt binding site maps 50bp from the nearest activator site in the eve stripe 2 enhancer.

    Gene product is known to regulate Kr CD (cis acting control element) expression.

    Substitution of 5 amino acids in the vertebrate VBP bZIP factor that differ between the Drosophila gt bZIP factor and vertebrate PAR bZIP factors indicates that the fork region, which bridges the basic and leucine zipper domains, contributes to half-site specificity.

    The abdominal cad domain is required to activate the gap genes kni and gt.

    gt is responsible for the posterior boundary of h stripe 5.

    E(z) is required to maintain the expression domain of kni and gt initiated by the maternal hb gradient.

    Muscle phenotype of mutants studied using polarised light microscopy and antibody staining to detect Mhc-lacZ reporter gene expression in muscles.

    Expression of prd depends on activation by gap gene hb, Kr, kni and gt products. Primary pair rule gene products act primarily in subsequent modulation rather than activation of prd stripes. Factors activating prd expression in the pair rule mode interact with those activating it along the dorso-ventral axis.

    The role of gt in the regulation of run mRNA expression in the early embryo has been investigated.

    Examination of conserved tracts in the D.virilis and D.melanogaster h gene promoters identified potential ftz-f1, Kr and gt binding sites. Kr and gt products establish the anterior and posterior borders of h stripe 5, respectively, through spatial repression.

    gt has been cloned and characterised. Its interactions with Kr and kni have been studied.

    The gene products of bcd, hb, Kr and gt all bind within the 480bp region that is necessary and sufficient for the expression of eve stripe 2. gt is involved in refining the anterior border of the stripe.

    Anterior gt expression is bcd-dependent and not repressed by maternal hb. Posterior expression is independent of bcd and repressed by hb. These results strongly suggest that anterior and posterior domains of gt expression are controlled by two separate regulatory elements that act independently and respond to different regulatory proteins. gt has a strong negative effect on kni expression.

    Regulatory interactions of gap genes modulate gt expression but are not required for its initiation in the embryo.

    It has been shown that Kr and gt are expressed in complementary, non-overlapping sets of cells in the early embryo. Interactions between the two genes have been studied.

    Mutations in zygotic cardinal gene gt interact with RpII140wimp.

    gt protein directly regulates the expression of eve stripe 2 expression by DNA binding to the stripe 2 promoter element.

    Zygotically active locus involved in the terminal developmental program in the embryo.

    gt mutants exhibit deletions of the head and abdomen.

    The gt transcription unit has been identified: the temporal and spatial pattern of expression investigated. Mutants in Kr, kni and hb affect the posterior gt expression domain but mutants in eve do not affect gt expression.

    Mutant embryos exhibit normal Dfd expression.

    Germ line clonal analysis indicates that gt has no maternal effect.

    gt mutants display defects in head and in the fifth through seventh abdominal segment.

    Used by Bridges (1935) in the construction of salivary chromosome maps. Preliminary evidence of interallelic complementation with respect to phenotype and viability presented by Duttagupta, Das and Dutta (1984).

    Larval development 4 days longer than normal resulting in giant larvae, pupae, and imagos. Adult weight 1.7 times normal; increased size caused by increase in cell size and not cell number (Simpson and Morata, 1980). Pupariation delayed owing to delayed increase in ecdysteroid titers; level reached at pupariation lower than normal; pupal interval of normal length (Schwartz, Imberski and Kelly, 1984). Not all genetically giant flies show the giant character, the rest have normal size; distribution sharply bimodal. Percentage giant greatest in well-fed cultures, also raised by modifying action of bb11. Penetrance of viable alleles enhanced in heterozygotes with lethal alleles and deficiencies; viability decreased (Kaufman, 1972). Abnormalities in DNA metabolism found in homo- or heteroallelic third instar gt females (Narachi and Boyd, 1985). Salivary gland chromosomes of double thickness in some cells (Bridges, 1935). Feulgen staining shows extra round of DNA synthesis; polytene chromosome can be analyzed in gt/Df larvae (Kaufman, 1972). Embryos carrying lethal giant mutations have defects in the anterior and the posterior domains (Petschek, Perrimon and Mahowald, 1987; Mohler, Eldon and Pirrotta, 1989). Posterior compartment of the labial segment deleted from blastoderm; cell death at germ-band elongation deletes anterior compartments of abdominal segments 5-7. Posterior-compartment structures of A5-7 in the peripheral nervous system fuse in mature embryos (Petschek and Mahowald, 1980). Hemizygotes for lethal alleles, gt13z and gtX11, fail to hatch (Kaufman, 1973); denticle belts of the fifth through the seventh abdominal segments partially or completely absent; internally corresponding neuromeres absent; eight abdominal neuromeres disconnected from remainder. Head does not complete involution, shows characteristic 'buttonhead' phenotype with ventral skeleton extruded from the anterior end of the larva (Mohler, Eldon and Pirrotta, 1989), pharynx and pharyngeal chitinized sclerites shorter and brain lobes somewhat smaller than normal; extensive cell death in epidermal and neural components of embryo (Honisch and Campos-Ortega, 1982). Effect cell autonomous in mosaic embryos. (Gergen and Wieschaus, 1986). Germline clones viable (Garcia-Bellido and Robbins, 1983). gt stocks (homo- or heteroallelic) show an increase in the frequency of spontaneous mutations, including deletions of y and w loci (Green, 1982); these stocks also synthesize DNA of a reduced molecular weight and show many single-strand and double-strand breaks, suggesting abnormalities in DNA metabolism (Narachi and Boyd, 1985).

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer

    Gabritschevsky, 2nd Sep. 1925.

    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 34 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (11)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    gt
    (Irizarry and Stathopoulos, 2021, Mahmud et al., 2020, Bozek et al., 2019, Kwasnieski et al., 2019, Mossman et al., 2019, Shokri et al., 2019, Verd et al., 2019, Zhornikova et al., 2019, Alhaj Abed et al., 2018, Basu et al., 2018, Bischof et al., 2018, Datta et al., 2018, Haines and Eisen, 2018, Myasnikova and Spirov, 2018, Myasnikova and Spirov, 2018, Shimell et al., 2018, Chertkova et al., 2017, Erceg et al., 2017, Gursky et al., 2017, Hu et al., 2017.6.13, Karaiskos et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Hoermann et al., 2016, Ma et al., 2016, Urbach et al., 2016, Cicin-Sain et al., 2015, Duque and Sinha, 2015, Kozlov et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Shimaji et al., 2015, Tkačik et al., 2015, Ugrankar et al., 2015, Villaverde et al., 2015, Jiang and Singh, 2014, Samee and Sinha, 2014, Becker et al., 2013, Chen et al., 2013, Combs and Eisen, 2013, Kim et al., 2013, Knowles and Biggin, 2013, Li and Gilmour, 2013, Little et al., 2013, Manu et al., 2013, McKay and Lieb, 2013, Samee and Sinha, 2013, Saunders et al., 2013, Spirov and Holloway, 2013, Surkova et al., 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Aswani et al., 2012, Brody et al., 2012, Chen et al., 2012, Crombach et al., 2012, He et al., 2012, Jaeger et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Kim et al., 2012, Kozlov et al., 2012, Kvon et al., 2012, Liang et al., 2012, Nikulova et al., 2012, Bieler et al., 2011, Fowlkes et al., 2011, Gursky et al., 2011, Harrison et al., 2011, Kaplan et al., 2011, Li et al., 2011, Lott et al., 2011, Nègre et al., 2011, Nien et al., 2011, Park et al., 2011, Pruteanu-Malinici et al., 2011, Aswani et al., 2010, Ghosh et al., 2010, Kazemian et al., 2010, Nuzhdin et al., 2010, The modENCODE Consortium, 2010, The modENCODE Consortium, 2010, Tran et al., 2010, Ashyraliyev et al., 2009, Fomekong-Nanfack et al., 2009, Fomekong-Nanfack et al., 2009, Goering et al., 2009, Kemppainen et al., 2009, Löhr et al., 2009, Manu et al., 2009, Manu et al., 2009, Ochoa-Espinosa et al., 2009, Parrish et al., 2009, Pisarev et al., 2009, Tchuraev and Galimzyanov, 2009, Venken et al., 2009, Venken et al., 2009, Weber et al., 2009, Andrioli et al., 2008, Ashyraliyev et al., 2008, Blanco and Gehring, 2008, Bosveld et al., 2008, Christensen et al., 2008.12.28, Fowlkes et al., 2008, Haecker et al., 2008, Hare et al., 2008, Juven-Gershon et al., 2008, Miles et al., 2008, Papatsenko and Levine, 2008, Sanders et al., 2008, Segal et al., 2008, Surkova et al., 2008, Surkova et al., 2008, Yu and Small, 2008, Aerts et al., 2007, Brent et al., 2007, de Velasco et al., 2007, Grieder et al., 2007, Haecker et al., 2007, Jaeger et al., 2007, Lott et al., 2007, Surkova et al., 2007, Wang et al., 2007, Azevedo et al., 2006, de Velasco et al., 2006, Jaeger and Reinitz, 2006, Keranen et al., 2006, Luengo Hendriks et al., 2006, McGregor, 2006, Negre et al., 2006, Perkins et al., 2006, Stroschein-Stevenson et al., 2006, Yucel and Small, 2006, Ishihara et al., 2005, Kulkarni and Arnosti, 2005, Peel et al., 2005, Stathopoulos and Levine, 2005, Berman et al., 2004, Grad et al., 2004, Gurunathan et al., 2004, Kreiman, 2004, Zeremski et al., 2003)
    l(1)3Aa
    Name Synonyms
    giant
    (Hoermann et al., 2016, Signor et al., 2016, Urbach et al., 2016, Wieschaus and Nüsslein-Volhard, 2016, Cicin-Sain et al., 2015, Khanna and Fortini, 2015, Kozlov et al., 2015, Peng et al., 2015, Samee and Sinha, 2014, Becker et al., 2013, Manu et al., 2013, Spirov and Holloway, 2013, Surkova et al., 2013, Chiu et al., 2012, Crombach et al., 2012, Jaeger et al., 2012, Liang et al., 2012, Bieler et al., 2011, Gursky et al., 2011, Little et al., 2011, Lott et al., 2011, Nègre et al., 2011, Park et al., 2011, Perry et al., 2011, Ghosh et al., 2010, Mace et al., 2010, Tran et al., 2010, Xiang et al., 2010, Iovino et al., 2009, Löhr et al., 2009, Lu et al., 2009, Manu et al., 2009, Myasnikova et al., 2009, Ochoa-Espinosa et al., 2009, Parrish et al., 2009, Pisarev et al., 2009, Saunders and Howard, 2009, Weber et al., 2009, Zamparo and Perkins, 2009, Bosveld et al., 2008, Haecker et al., 2008, Ishihara and Shibata, 2008, Juven-Gershon et al., 2008, Lemke et al., 2008, Lott et al., 2008, Miles et al., 2008, Peterson et al., 2008, Sanders et al., 2008, Surkova et al., 2008, Wu and Xie, 2008, Yu and Small, 2008, Jaeger et al., 2007, Lott et al., 2007, Wang et al., 2007, Zinzen and Papatsenko, 2007, de Velasco et al., 2006, Jaeger and Reinitz, 2006, Keranen et al., 2006, Negre et al., 2006, Papatsenko et al., 2006, Veitia, 2006, Yucel and Small, 2006, Gregor et al., 2005, King-Jones and Thummel, 2005, Kulkarni and Arnosti, 2005, Berman et al., 2004, Kreiman, 2004, Zeremski et al., 2003)
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
      Datasets (2)
      Study focus (2)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      • bait_protein
      ChIP characterization of transcription factor genome binding, Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Factor Network Project.
      • bait_protein
      Genome-wide localization of transcription factors by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
      References (539)