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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\His2B
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Histone H2B
Annotation Symbol
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0001198
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling. (UniProt, P02283)
Contribute a Gene Snapshot for this gene.
Also Known As

H2B, histone, dH2B, core histone, Histone2B

Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (3 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
enables DNA binding
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000558, InterPro:IPR007125
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR009072
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
part_of nucleosome
traceable author statement
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000558
(assigned by InterPro )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the histone H2B family. (P02283)
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
(UniProt, P02283)
Summary (Interactive Fly)

Nucleosome core histone component, chromatin assembly, target of ubiquitination by the dosage compensation and SWI/SNF complexes, regulates of neuronal connectivity in the visual system, regulates Notch target genes and repression of key differentiation genes

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
0
Number of Unique Polypeptides
0
Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

 

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

The nucleosome is a histone octamer containing two molecules each of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 assembled in one H3-H4 heterotetramer and two H2A-H2B heterodimers. The octamer wraps approximately 147 bp of DNA.

(UniProt, P02283)
Post Translational Modification

Monoubiquitination of Lys-118 by Bre1 gives a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation and is also prerequisite for histone H3 'Lys-4' and 'Lys-79' methylation.

Methylation at Pro-2 increases upon heat shock.

GlcNAcylation at Ser-110 promotes monoubiquitination of Lys-118. It fluctuates in response to extracellular glucose, and associates with transcribed genes (Probable).

(UniProt, P02283)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\His2B using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

His2B transcript is restricted to replicating cells.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\His2B in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 1 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 20 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of His2B
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of His2B
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 3 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 3 )
Gene duplicated in
Inferred from location ( 0 )
    Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
    Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Drosophilid orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
      Select Layout:
      Legend:
      Protein
      RNA
      Selected Interactor(s)
      Interactions Browser

      Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
      protein-protein
      Physical Interaction
      Assay
      References
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
      The nucleosome is a histone octamer containing two molecules each of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 assembled in one H3-H4 heterotetramer and two H2A-H2B heterodimers. The octamer wraps approximately 147 bp of DNA.
      (UniProt, P02283 )
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      Pathways
      Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
      Metabolic Pathways
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      Recombination map
      2-55
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      39D3-39E1
      Left limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0029738) Right limit from molecular mapping relative to His2A (FBrf0044950)
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      39D-39E
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      39D3-39E2
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Location

      2-55

      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (16)
      Genomic Clones (0)
       
        cDNA Clones (0)
         

        Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

        cDNA clones, fully sequenced
        BDGP DGC clones
          Other clones
            Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

            For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

              cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
              BDGP DGC clones
                Other clones
                  RNAi and Array Information
                  Linkouts
                  Antibody Information
                  Laboratory Generated Antibodies
                  Commercially Available Antibodies
                   
                  Other Information
                  Relationship to Other Genes
                  Other Comments

                  The majority of replication-dependent histone gene transcripts are not polyadenylated and in addition two types of polyadenylated transcripts can be detected. A small proportion of the histone mRNAs bear a short poly(A) tail which is added to the 3' terminus of a partially degraded stem-loop structure. Polyadenylation signals can be located downstream of the stem-loop structure that can be used to generate mRNAs with a poly(A) tail.

                  The ATPase activity of Iswi is completely inhibited by each of the four histone tails (His2A, His2B, His3 and His4), results indicate a novel role for the flexible histone tails in chromatin remodeling by Iswi.

                  The position of the homologous histone gene repeats within the nuclei of early embryo cells has been investigated. The two homologous histone gene clusters are distinct and separate through all stages of the cell cycle up to nuclear cycle 13. During interphase of cycle 14, the two clusters colocalise with high frequency, and move from near the midline of the nucleus towards the apical side.

                  DNA replication of the 5kb histone gene repeating unit in tissue culture cells (Drosophila Kc cells) initiates at multiple sites located within the repeating unit. Several replication pause sites are located at 5' upstream regions of some histone genes.

                  DNaseI footprinting analysis reveals core histones His2A, His2B, His3 and His4 (but not His1) bind to the kni, Kr and Ubx minimal enhancer elements in a periodic manner.

                  The genomic organisation of the histone genes in D.hydei closely resembles that of D.melanogaster.

                  The D.virilis core histone genes (Dvir\His2B, Dvir\His3, Dvir\His4 and Dvir\His2A), are arranged in the same order and orientation as the D.melanogaster core histone genes (His2B, His3, His4 and His2A). However, the His1 gene that is located between His2B and His3 in D.melanogaster is not found between Dvir\His2B and Dvir\His3 in D.virilis. Overall orientation not stated: His2B+ His1- His3- His4+ His2A-

                  Origin and Etymology
                  Discoverer
                  Etymology
                  Identification
                  External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 14 )
                  Sequence Crossreferences
                  GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
                  GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
                  UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
                  Other crossreferences
                  InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
                  Linkouts
                  DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
                  FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
                  Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
                  Synonyms and Secondary IDs (23)
                  Reported As
                  Symbol Synonym
                  H2B
                  (Chaouch and Lasko, 2021, Finger et al., 2021, Palmateer et al., 2021, Edwards-Jorquera et al., 2020, Okimune et al., 2020, Reddington et al., 2020, Wooten et al., 2020, Chittori et al., 2019, Armstrong et al., 2018, Mir et al., 2018, Tseng et al., 2018, Tsui et al., 2018, Khuong et al., 2017, Kitevski-LeBlanc et al., 2017, Kolkhof et al., 2017, Ramachandran et al., 2017, Rowley et al., 2017, Sap et al., 2017, Bayona-Feliu et al., 2016, Elnfati et al., 2016, Penke et al., 2016, Zhou et al., 2016, Edlich-Muth et al., 2015, Fei et al., 2015, Horard and Loppin, 2015, Pengelly et al., 2015, Stephenson et al., 2015, Afonso et al., 2014, Emelyanov et al., 2014, Fereres et al., 2014, Klinker et al., 2014, Matsuoka et al., 2014, McElroy et al., 2014, Messina et al., 2014, Mohan et al., 2014, Doyen et al., 2013, Guglielmi et al., 2013, Stein et al., 2013, Wang et al., 2013, Zhou et al., 2013, Bonn et al., 2012, Dunlap et al., 2012, Ito et al., 2012, Li et al., 2012, Li et al., 2012, Petruk et al., 2012, Tran et al., 2012, Villar-Garea et al., 2012, Xie et al., 2012, Zhou et al., 2012, Chen et al., 2011, Egelhofer et al., 2011, Gibert and Karch, 2011, Kuranaga et al., 2011, Lorbeck et al., 2011, Olins et al., 2011, Regnard et al., 2011, Anderson et al., 2010, Deal et al., 2010, Lee et al., 2010, Makde et al., 2010, Mazumder and Shivashankar, 2010, modENCODE Consortium et al., 2010, Mohan et al., 2010, Sawatsubashi et al., 2010, Scheuermann et al., 2010, Zobeck et al., 2010, Zobeck et al., 2010, Bhattacharya et al., 2009, Brower-Toland et al., 2009, Buszczak et al., 2009, Clapier and Cairns, 2009, Godfrey et al., 2009, Kolesnikova et al., 2009, Morciano et al., 2009, Moshkin et al., 2009, Nie et al., 2009, Sakai et al., 2009, Simon et al., 2009, Sullivan et al., 2009, Weake et al., 2009, Bao et al., 2008, Buszczak et al., 2008, Buttrick et al., 2008, Cakouros et al., 2008, Carreno et al., 2008, Clapier et al., 2008, Erhardt et al., 2008, Krajewski, 2008, Weake et al., 2008, Camporeale et al., 2007, Corona et al., 2007, Dalal et al., 2007, Dalal et al., 2007, Goshima et al., 2007, Goshima et al., 2007, Isogai et al., 2007, Pinnola et al., 2007, Banerjee et al., 2006, Bouazoune and Brehm, 2006, Brasaemle and Hansen, 2006, Camporeale et al., 2006, Furuyama et al., 2006, Heun et al., 2006, Hickson et al., 2006, Jaklevic et al., 2006, Mendjan et al., 2006, Ni et al., 2006, Raisner and Madhani, 2006, Santoso and Kadonaga, 2006, de Vries et al., 2005, Dudnik et al., 2005, Lusser et al., 2005, Schwartz and Ahmad, 2005, van der Knaap et al., 2005, Aihara et al., 2004, Beach and Wolfner, 2004, Kusch et al., 2004, Kusch et al., 2004, Lippman and Martienssen, 2004, Morales et al., 2004, Kakita et al., 2003, Blower and Karpen, 2002, Cao et al., 2002, Levenstein and Kadonaga, 2002, Smith, 2002, Yu and Wolfner, 2002, Ahmad and Henikoff, 2001, Berloco et al., 2001, Hamiche et al., 2001, Katsani et al., 2001, Mello and Almouzni, 2001, Mizuguchi et al., 2001, Nakagawa et al., 2001, Kal et al., 2000, Leach et al., 2000, Mizzen and Allis, 2000, Pham and Sauer, 2000, Smith et al., 2000, Verreault, 2000, Baldo et al., 1999, Borgnetto et al., 1999, Carrier et al., 1999, Hamiche et al., 1999, Hennig, 1999, Schienman et al., 1998, Smith et al., 1998, Strausbaugh et al., 1998, Walker and Bownes, 1998, Akhmanova et al., 1997, Georgel et al., 1997, Grunstein, 1997, Ito et al., 1996, Ito et al., 1996, Sommer and Strausbaugh, 1996, Strausbaugh and Williams, 1996, Blank and Becker, 1995, Sobel et al., 1994, O'Brien and Lis, 1993, Shinomiya and Ina, 1993, Becker and Wu, 1992, Kas and Laemmli, 1992, Kerrigan and Kadonaga, 1992, Pauli et al., 1992, Harisanova and Ralchev, 1991, Harisanova et al., 1991, O'Brien and Lis, 1991, Udvardy and Schedl, 1991, Fitch et al., 1990, Kremer and Hennig, 1990, Domier et al., 1986)
                  Secondary FlyBase IDs
                  • FBgn0039974
                  Datasets (2)
                  Study focus (2)
                  Experimental Role
                  Project
                  Project Type
                  Title
                  • bait_protein
                  Genome-wide localization of histones and their modifications in cell lines by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
                  • bait_protein
                  Genome-wide localization of histones and their modifications in fly tissues by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
                  References (323)