dorsotonals, dtl, P53, anon- EST:Liang-2.13
AlphaFold produces a per-residue confidence score (pLDDT) between 0 and 100. Some regions with low pLDDT may be unstructured in isolation.
Interacts with exd; required for nuclear translocation of exd.
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\hth using the Feature Mapper tool.
and more posterior neurectoderm.
hth transcripts are relatively abundant in 3-15hr embryos, 1st instar larvae, and pupae. They are less abundant in 2nd instar larvae and are at very low levels in early embryos, third instar larvae, and adults.
hth transcripts are first expressed in the cellular blastoderm embryos in what becomes the segmented portion of the embryo but not at the poles. During gastrulation, they are expressed throughout the ectoderm but not in the procephalon. Beginning in stage 11 embryos, expression is strong in the thoracic region but begins to decline in the abdominal region. Expression is also moderate in the mandible and maxilla but absent from the labium. hth expression is also observed at this time in the visceral mesoderm and at a very high level in the clypeolabrum. In stages 13-14, expression appears in the developing Malpighian tubules and in the CNS. It remains high in the head and thorax and low in the abdomen. During stages 15-17, expression declines in the ectoderm and becomes more prominant in the CNS. The CNS expression is graded, higher in the anterior region and weak in the posterior regions.
hth transcripts are expressed in the wing disc in the notum, winge hinge, and ventral pleura. In the leg discs, expression is in the periphery region corresponding to the proximal segments of the legs. In the antennal disc, the expression is in all but the arista region. In the eye disc, hth expression is strong in the anterior region surrounding the eye field, including the regions corresponding to the ptilinum, ocellus, and head capsules, and weak in the posterior and lateral margins of the disc. hth is also expressed in all cells of the peripodial membrane in the eye disc. Weak expression is observed in the posterior region composed of mature photoreceptors. This expression pattern generally coincides with that of exd.
hth transcripts are first detected at 3hr of embryogenesis in a broad domain extending from 15-85% egg length. In later stages the pattern becomes very dynamic. The strongest expression is seen in the trunk region and portions of the head. Starting at stage 9, staining is stronger in the thorax than in the abdomen and this difference increases with time. By stage 14, expression is strong in the CNS, especially in the thorax. In the midgut, expression is strongest in the gastric caeca primordia and in a central broad domain in the endoderm. Expression is absent in the most anterior and posterior portions of the midgut endoderm. By stage 16, strong expression is seen in the Malpighian tubules. Expression in the endoderm begins posterior to the first midgut constriction and ends just anterior to the third midgut constriction. In leg and antennal discs, hth is expressed in the peripheral cells of these discs.
In stage 16 embryos, hth is expressed in principal cells (Malpighian tubule Type I cell) in the distal portion of the Malpighian tubules and in stellate cells (Malpighian tubule Type II cell ) in both distal and proximal portions of the tubule.
larval Leucokinin ABLK neurons of the abdominal ganglion of segments A1-3, and in a number of cases in segment A4.
During gastrulation, hth protein is localized to the cytoplasm. At stage 9, it starts to accumulate in the nucleus in a spatially regulated manner. Nuclear localization is observed in the ectoderm, in specific cells in the thoracic portion of the ventral nerve cord, and in the visceral mesoderm.
hth protein is expressed in developing antennal lobe neurons. It is expressed in many of the cells that surround the antennal lobe in larval and adult brains. It is expressed in the antero dorsal and the lateral projection neurons, the two main olfactory projection neuron lineages in the brain. In the lateral lineage, hth is also expressed in the GH298-positive interneurons and in a small group of ventral cells that in part overlap with GH146-positive projection neurons. In the larval brain, hth is expressed in the neuroblasts of the anterodorsal and lateral antennal lobe lineages.
hth protein is expressed in the differentiated neurons of the innermost domain of the medulla anlage from third instar larvae and in pupa until 12h APF, where it borders the concentric domain of run distally. hth protein co-localises with bsh on the distal region of its domain. Thereafter and in adults, hth protein is found in layers 8 to 10 of the medulla. hth protein is also weakly expressed in the neuroblasts of third instar larva.
hth is expressed in NB5-6 starting at embryonic stage 11 in abdominal and thoracic lineages, is expressed in all cells in the lineage at stage 13, and is maintained throughout the lineage in subsequent stages. It is also expressed in more anterior NB5-6 lineages. There is a sharp increase in hth levels between stage 12 and 13.
hth protein is detected in third instar larval antennal discs in the primordia of antennal segments 2 and 3 and in the arista promordia.
hth is expressed in the myocytes of the anterior aorta, which the exception of the posterior-most myocyte. Expression is excluded from the posterior aorta and the heart.
hth protein is expressed in all cells of the second instar eye disc; expression levels are lower in the posterior disc. By late third instar, hth protein is expressed in the eye disc in a pattern that excludes the morphogenetic furrow, the h-expressing pre-proneural region immediately anterior to the morphogenetic furrow, and the cells immediately posterior the morphogenetic furrow. hth is expressed in the antennal disc in a pattern that excludes the distal-most region.
hth protein is expressed throughout the wing disc from early second instar to mid third instarhth protein expression resolves into three distinct domains in the proximal region of the wing disc, two of which overlap with wg expression in the hinge region.
hth protein is expressed in wing discs during the second larval instar. Wing disc expression is lost during the early third instar, and returns at late third instar. In the late third instar, hth protein is expressed in two concentric rings surrounding the wing pouch, corresponding to the presumptive wing hinge.
hth protein is expressed in the wing disc in the notum, winge hinge, and ventral pleura. In the leg discs, expression is in the peripheral region corresponding to the proximal segments of the legs. In the antennal disc, the expression is in all but the arista region. In the eye disc, hth expression is strong in the anterior region surrounding the eye field, including the regions corresponding to the ptilinum, ocellus, and head capsules, and weak in the posterior and lateral margins of the disc. hth is also expressed in all cells of the peripodial membrane in the eye disc. Weak expression is observed in the posterior region composed of mature photoreceptors. This expression pattern generally coincides with that of exd.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\hth in GBrowse 2
Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
The noc and elB paralogs interact with hth to correctly specify the photoreceptors which detect polarised light at the dorsal rim of the retina, being involved in specifying both morphological and molecular fate. noc and elB also antagonise the transcriptional activator and repressor functions of oc in the retina through distinct protein domains.
hth generates two types of protein isoforms, one that contains a DNA-binding homeodomain (HthFL) one that does not contain a homeodomain (HDless). Many of the functions of this gene, including appendage patterning and most Hox-related activities, can be executed by the HDless isoform. In contrast, antennal development shows an absolute dependency on the HthFL isoform.
hth is both necessary and sufficient for inner photoreceptor cells in the eye to adopt the polarisation-sensitive DRA (dorsal rim area) fate instead of the colour-sensitive default state.
Identification: screen for mutants in opsin regulation and photoreceptor cell type specification.
hth expression specifically marks the two dorsal-most rows of inner photoreceptors.
hth is necessary for wing hinge development. hth also limits where along the dorsal/ventral compartment boundary wing blade development can initiate, thus helping to define the size and position of the wing blade within the wing disc epithelium.
hth mutants show patterning defects in the primary axonal scaffolds of the developing embryonic brain.
hth is required during development for normal eye development and is necessary for the formation of the ventral head capsule.
The hth gene product is required to overcome the influence of the exd NES (nuclear export signal), possibly by inducing a conformational change in the exd product. The exd and hth gene products interact in the cytoplasm. The hth gene product, like that of exd, has an NLS (nuclear localization signal).
The subcellular location of exd gene product and its mammalian counterpart Hsap\PBX1 depends on nuclear export and import signals and is modulated by association with hth protein or its mammalian counterpart Hsap\PKNOX1.
Candidate gene for quantitative trait (QTL) locus determining bristle number.
In the antennal disc, the Scr, Antp, Ubx, and abd-A HOM-C genes all exert their effects by suppressing the transcription of hth and thus preventing the nuclear localisation of exd. hth may also be involved in proximodistal development of the antenna.