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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\sti
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
sticky
Annotation Symbol
CG10522
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002466
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
sticky (sti) encodes a member of the AGC family of kinases that functions to regulate both actin-myosin-mediated cytokinesis and epigenetic gene silencing. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

Citron, citron kinase, dck, cit, l(3)7m-62

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:12,507,998..12,514,815 [-]
Recombination map
3-38
RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:12507998..12514815
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (22 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
enables ATP binding
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002743840
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000542090
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (15 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:wts; FB:FBgn0011739
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002743840
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000542090
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000542090
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000542090
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002743840
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000542090
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000542090
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in actin cytoskeleton
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002743862
(assigned by GO_Central )
is_active_in cytoplasm
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002743840
(assigned by GO_Central )
is_active_in cytoskeleton
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002743840
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
sticky (sti) encodes a member of the AGC family of kinases that functions to regulate both actin-myosin-mediated cytokinesis and epigenetic gene silencing. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
AGC KINASES (UNCLASSIFIED) -
The AGC kinase subfamily are serine/threonine kinases that were originally defined based on the sequence similarity of the catalytic domain. The AGC KINASE (UNCLASSIFIED) gene group represents AGC kinases that do not fall into the PKA, PKC or PKG families. (Adapted from FBrf0132098 and PMID:20027184).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of Hippo Signaling Pathway -
The Hippo signaling pathway is an intracellular kinase cascade in which hpo kinase in complex with sav, phosphorylates wts kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates yki transcriptional co-activator leading to its cytosolic retention. Negative regulators of the pathway promote the nuclear accumulation of yki, enhancing yki-mediated transcriptional regulation and the expression of genes that positively regulate tissue growth (Adapted from FBrf0224870).
Summary (Interactive Fly)

Rho effector kinase functioning downstream of - required for cytokinesis

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\sti for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0075970
6072
1854
FBtr0332643
6084
1858
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0075702
211.3
1854
6.71
FBpp0304889
211.8
1858
6.75
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\sti using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\sti in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 18 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 11 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of sti
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of sti
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 11 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
embryonic peripheral nervous system & neuron (with Df(3L)iro-2)
eye & ommatidium
neuroblast & chromosome
neuroblast & chromosome (with Df(3L)F10)
neuroblast & chromosome (with sti1)
neuroblast & chromosome (with sti4)
neuroblast & chromosome (with sti5)
neuroblast & condensed chromosome
nucleus & follicle cell | conditional - heat sensitive
nucleus & follicle cell | conditional - heat sensitive (with sti3)
nucleus & follicle cell | conditional - heat sensitive (with stiZ3-5829)
spermatid & Nebenkern
spermatid & Nebenkern (with Df(3L)E44)
spermatid & nucleus | supernumerary
spermatid & nucleus | supernumerary (with Df(3L)E44)
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (23)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
4  
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
5  
1 of 15
No
No
3  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1  
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (14)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (13)
8 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (13)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (22)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (8)
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (8)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900BP )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915006Y )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G00DT )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (4)
5 of 10
4 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of Hippo Signaling Pathway -
The Hippo signaling pathway is an intracellular kinase cascade in which hpo kinase in complex with sav, phosphorylates wts kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates yki transcriptional co-activator leading to its cytosolic retention. Negative regulators of the pathway promote the nuclear accumulation of yki, enhancing yki-mediated transcriptional regulation and the expression of genes that positively regulate tissue growth (Adapted from FBrf0224870).
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3L
Recombination map
3-38
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:12,507,998..12,514,815 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
69C4-69C4
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0508805088 and P{PZ}l(3)0692406924
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (19)
Genomic Clones (12)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (34)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of

Source for merge of: cit CG10522

Source for merge of: sti cit

Source for merge of: cit anon-WO0118547.388

Additional comments

Source for merge of cit anon-WO0118547.388 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).

Other Comments

sti localisation to the cleavage furrow depends on Rho1 and cleavage furrow assembly.

When dsRNA constructs are made and transiently transfected into S2 cells in RNAi experiments, a decrease in the ratio of cells in prometaphase and metaphase versus the total number of mitotic cells and a whole range of mitotic abnormalities are seen.

Analysis of sti5 and sti2, reveal that the region between residues 1125 and 1178 is important for sti activity.

sti is required for the terminal (post-furrowing) events of cytokinesis.

dsRNA directed against this gene causes defects in cytokinesis when tested in an RNAi screen in S2 cells.

RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a binucleation phenotype when assayed in Kc167 cells.

dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a phenotype in S2 cells. These cells display higher frequencies of telophases, abnormal membrane protrusions at the cleavage furrow and lack the "Fleming body", a proteinaceous matrix associated with the central spindle midzone.

dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells: binucleate cells.

dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene is tested in an RNAi screen for effects on actin-based lamella formation.

Area matching Drosophila EST AA539198.

All alleles have mitotic chromosomes (both sisters and heterologues) stuck together and show metaphase delay; "successful" anaphase fragments the chromosomes.

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 48 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
MARRVEL_MODEL
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Linkouts
ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (24)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
anon-WO0118547.388
l(3)SG21
sti/Citron
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0036295
  • FBgn0062046
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (114)