l(4)29, YY1, Pleohomeotic, l(4)BU-2, polyhomeotic
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
520 (aa); 58 (kD predicted)
Component of the Esc/E(z) complex, composed of Esc, E(z), Su(z)12, Rpd3 and Caf1-55. This complex is distinct from the PRC1 complex, which contains many other PcG proteins like Pc, Ph, Psc, Su(z)2. The two complexes however cooperate and interact together during the first 3 hours of development to establish PcG silencing. Component of the chromatin remodeling Ino80 complex. Interacts with Sfmbt to form a pho-repressive complex (PhoRC).
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\pho using the Feature Mapper tool.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\pho in GBrowse 2
Mapped in diplo-4 triploids.
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Source for identity of: pho CG17743
DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for pho protein in Kc167 cells; see Chromatin_types_NKI collection report. Individual protein-binding experiments listed under "Samples" at GEO_GSE22069 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE22069).
In an effort to subdivide the Pc-group genes functionally, the phenotypes of adult flies heterozygous for every pairwise combination of Pc-group mutation were examined. Most duplications of Pc-group genes neither exhibit anterior transformations nor suppress the extra sex comb phenotype of Pc-group mutations, suggesting that not all Pc-group genes behave as predicted by the mass action model.
A pho maternal effect mutant produces embryos with a twisted phenotype, similar to those of dorsal-ventral axis mutations.
Maternal function of pho is vital for embryonic development and can support embryonic, larvl and much of adult development.
Embryos mutant for two or more Pc group genes (Pc, Scm, Pcl, Psc, Asx, E(Pc), E(z), ph-d, pho and esc) show strong ectopic en expression, but only weak derepression occurs if embryo is mutant at only one of the Pc group genes. This effect is independent of the function of en itself, and wg.
Mutations of genes in the polycomb group (esc, E(z), Pc, ph-p, ph-d, Scm, Pcl, Sce, Asx, Psc, pho and Antp) cause abnormal segmental development due to the ectopic expression of abd-A and Abd-B. Embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic pho product were generated to determine abd-A and Abd-B expression patterns.
The Pc group genes are negative regulators of homeotic genes.
Pole cell transplantation techniques demonstrate that pho is maternally expressed and is required for normal BXC expression during embryogenesis.
Homozygotes from heterozygous mothers die as pupae (Hochman). Those that reach the pharate-adult stage show partial homeotic transformations of first and second antennal segments into proximal leg structures, meso- and metathoracic legs into prothoracic legs, as well as posteriorly directed transformations of features of the abdominal hypoderm and of parovaria into spermathecae in females. All three pairs of legs distorted, with tarsal segments swollen and sometimes fused with missing claws; some abnormalities of derivatives of the antennal disc and of the dorsal prothorax also present (Gehring, 1970; Duncan, 1982). Heterozygous adults normal, except that males also heterozygous for a deficiency or mutation of E(Pc) occasionally develop sex-comb teeth on meso- and metathoracic legs (Sato et al., 1983). Heterozygous and homozygous larvae from heterozygous mothers normal; homozygotes from transplanted homozygous ovaries die as late embryos with a complex homeotic syndrome. Head involution incomplete and portions of head develop abdominal-like denticles. All thoracic segments partially transformed to resemble the first abdominal segment, and more posterior segments may develop cuticular features characteristic of the eighth abdominal segment. Heterozygotes from homozygous ovaries sometimes die as late embryos displaying relatively mild homeotic effects of the head and mesothorax or slightly incomplete head involution or both, but often hatch and die during larval or pupal stages. Rarely, adults eclose, often with appendages that are crippled or are missing owing to failure of imaginal-disc evagination (Denell). Most embryos produced by oocytes hemizygous for phob and phoc, achieved by pole-cell transplantation, fail to form cuticle, even with a wild-type paternal complement; a few of the latter genotype produce enough cuticle to reveal extensive defects in segmentation; setal belts usually missing or transformed; head involution fails; anterior hole present in most embryos (Breen and Duncan, 1986).