m4, E(spl)m4, E(spl) region transcript m4
Gene model reviewed during 5.42
Gene model reviewed during 5.48
There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene
152 (aa); 17.23 (kD predicted)
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\E(spl)m4-BFM using the Feature Mapper tool.
E(spl) genes were found to be differentially expressed during metamorphosis.
m4 transcripts are detected in third instar larval eye discs in the morphogenetic furrow in a strong band just anterior to the stripe of dpp staining in the furrow. They are detected in the pupal wing at 8h APF in large clusters of proximal campaniform sensilla and in the wing margin.
m4 transcripts are expressed in the mesectoderm shortly before gastrulation. After gastrulation they are expressed in the neurectoderm and in the mesoderm in a highly dynamic pattern. In imaginal discs, m4 transcripts are expressed in presumptive proneural clusters of eye-antennal, wing, and leg discs.
The peak of m4 expression during embryogenesis occurs at 2-10 hours. In the late blastoderm, expression is detected in a 2-3 cell-wide stripe on each side of the embryo, in groups of cells over the dorsal half of the poles, in the vitellophage, and weakly in a dorsomedian band spanning the anterioposterior axis. During germ band extension, ectodermal expression is detected, and at the extended germ band stage, epidermal expression is abundant. In late stage 11, epidermal expression becomes patchy. At stage 10, the primordia of the supraoesophageal ganglion and the posterior midgut express m4. From stage 11 through late stage 12, expression is detected in the entire mesodermal layer. From late stage 11 through stage 14, expression is also detected in the primordia of the stomatogastric nervous system and in the optic lobes.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\E(spl)m4-BFM in GBrowse 2
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Source for identity of: E(spl)m4-BFM m4
The distinct expression patterns of genes of the E(spl) complex in imaginal tissues depend to a significant degree on the capacity of their transcriptional cis-regulatory apparatus to respond selectively to direct proneural and Su(H)-mediated activation, often in a subset of the territories and cells in which proneural and Su(H) regulation is occurring. The m4 and HLHmγ enhancers are distinctly similar though the genes are expressed in dissimilar patterns in the wing disc.
In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.
Proximal upstream region contains multiple specific binding sites for Su(H). Integrity of these sites and Su(H) activity are required not only for normal levels of E(spl) complex gene expression in imaginal disc proneural clusters but also for their transcriptional response to hyperactivity of the N receptor. Su(H) is a direct regulatory link between N receptor activity and the expression of E(spl) complex genes, extending the known lineage of the N cell-cell signaling pathway.
The bristle loss phenotype of H mutants can be suppressed by deleting components of the E(spl)-complex. The degree of suppression depends on both the number and identity of E(spl)-complex transcription units removed.
E(spl) bHLH proteins are turned on in cells which are inhibited from becoming neural by signals from the delaminating neuroblast.
Gel retardation experiments demonstrate the 5' regulatory region contains putative in vitro binding sites for Su(H).
Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrate that m4 is directly activated in proneural clusters of the late third-instar wing imaginal disc by protein complexes that include the ac and sc bHLH proteins.
Arrangement and sequence of E(spl)-complex genes in D.melanogaster and D.hydei revealed that the E(spl)-gene, and the structure of complex are highly conserved, suggesting that each individual gene, as well as the organization of the complex, is of functional importance.
Eight E(spl)-region genes are required for the development of neurectodermal cells, HLHmδ, HLHmβ, HLHmγ, HLHm3, HLHm5, HLHm7, E(spl) and gro, and m4 may also play a role in this process.
Genetic analysis demonstrates that Dl, neu, E(spl), HLHm5, HLHm7 and m4 are functionally related. Spatial distribution of mRNA in neurogenic mutant embryos suggests that some of the functional interactions take place at the transcriptional level.