Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\nos
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
nanos
Annotation Symbol
CG5637
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002962
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
nanos (nos) encodes an RNA-binding protein that forms part of a translational repressor complex. It functions as the localized determinant of abdominal segmentation. It contributes to germline development, germline stem cell renewal, and neuronal morphogenesis and function. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As

DRONANOS, l(3)j3B6

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:19,157,238..19,160,202 [+]
Recombination map

3-66

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:19157238..19160202
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (25 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:cup; FB:FBgn0000392
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q8MQJ9
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000984469
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001878, InterPro:IPR008705
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (16 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000984469
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000984469
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000984469
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the nanos family. (P25724)
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Maternal RNA-binding protein that is required for germ cells proliferation and self-renewal. Acts by forming a complex with pum and brat that regulates translation and mRNA stability. The complex binds to the Nanos Response Element (NRE), a 16 bp sequence in the hb mRNA 3'-UTR and prevents its translation. Controls posterior development. Rescuing factor for the abdominal defect of posterior group mutants. The other posterior group genes are not required for nanos function but rather play a role in localization or distribution of nanos protein.
(UniProt, P25724)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
nos: nanos
Maternal-effect lethal. Mutant embryos lack abdominal segments, but have normal pole cells and pole plasm; no posterior activity in pole plasm. Transport or diffusion of the nos gene product from the posterior of the embryo seems to be essential for development of the wild-type abdominal pattern. Presence of the nos protein represses the activity of of the gene product encoded by the hb maternal transcript in the posterior half of the embryo (Hulskamp et al., 1989; Irish et al., 1989; Struhl, 1989). Eggs deficient for both hb and nos, when fertilized by hb+ sperm, develop into normal embryos and subsequently into viable flies.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

translational repressor - zinc finger - crucial organizer of the germ plasm - targets Hunchback and Bicoid mRNAs to achieve posterior identity - acts like a clamp to hold Pumilio close to specific RNAs, which allows Pumilio to switch off the production of the corresponding proteins

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\nos for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0083732
2349
401
FBtr0335019
2292
382
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

2.4 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Rfam - A collection of RNA sequence families of structural RNAs including non-coding RNA genes as well as cis-regulatory elements
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0083146
43.4
401
8.74
FBpp0307025
41.5
382
8.56
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

401 (aa); 43 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Interacts with pum and brat. Acts via the formation of a quaternary complex composed of pum, nos, brat and the 3'-UTR mRNA of hb. Interacts with cup. Binds RNA with no specificity.

(UniProt, P25724)
Domain

The Nanos-type zinc finger is composed of two C2HC motifs, each motif binding one molecule of zinc. The presence of the zinc molecules is essential for the translation repression activity of the protein.

(UniProt, P25724)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\nos using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
distribution deduced from reporter
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 0-8 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data

As deduced from GFP labeled nos transcripts in early egg chambers nos transcript localizes to the posterior of the oocyte. There is a transient redistribution to an anterior ring at the margin of the oocyte during stages 8 and 9. nos transcript is no longer detected in the oocyte at stage 10. At stage 10b nurse cell dumping is initiated and by stage 11 nos transcript can be detected in the posterior cortex of the oocyte with a punctate distribution. Cooccurence with vas protein suggests that nos transcript associates with the germ plasm. Maximum accumulation of nos transcript is observed at stage 13/14.

in situ hybridization detects a localized nos transcript at the posterior pole in embryos, however, northern blot analysis detects high transcript levels in both anterior and posterior embryo halves, indicating that transcript is expressed uniformly, and subsequently localized to the posterior pole.

During oogenesis, nos transcipt is first clearly detected at stage S5, in both nurse cells and oocytes. At stage S7-8, nos transcript transiently localizes to the anterior margin of the oocyte. At stage S10, a high level of nos transcript is present in oocytes; this transcript subsequently dumped into the oocyte. By stage S12, nos transcript begins to accumulate at the posterior pole of the oocyte, and is localized to the posterior pole of the oocyte at the later stages of oogenesis. In embryos, nos transcript is undetectable after germ band extension.

In wild type and in pum mutant embryos, nos RNA is localized to the posterior pole plasm.

Wild type nos transcripts are expressed in a wild type pattern at the posterior pole in nosbcd.3UTR embryos. wild type nos transcripts are absent in nosbcd.3UTR embryos from osk1 females.

nos transcripts containing a bcd3'UTR are localized at the anterior end of embryos in a distributionresembling the wild type bcd pattern.

The 2.4 kb nos transcript is detected at high levels in ovaries and in 0-2 hour embryos, and at much lower levels in 2-8 hour embryos. This transcript is not detected in older embryos, larvae, or pupae. The nos transcript localizes to the posterior pole of stage 1-2 embryos. The levels of nos transcript in pole cells are high at stage 3 and 4, and have declined dramatically by early germ band extension (stage 8), with no pole cell-specific staining detected after stage 10.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
germline stem cell & cystoblast

Comment: in primordial germ cell (PGC), at mid-third instar (ML3, 96hr AEL)

in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Highest levels of nos protein in the germarium are detected in germline cysts in region 2. Levels decline as the cysts are encapsulated by somatic cells. Lower levels of nos protein have previously been observed in the germline stem cells and dividing cystoblasts (FBrf0074750).

During oogenesis, nos protein can be detected strongly in germarium region 1, and weakly in germarium region 2a. Low levels of nos protein can be observed in nurse cell/oocyte clusters at stages S3-6, and high levels in nurse cells at stage S10. nos protein is never observed in oocytes. After pole bud formation in embryos, nos protein is rapidly degraded outside of the pole cells. nos protein is observed in embryonic germline cells as late as embryonic stage 15.

In wild type embryos, nos protein forms a concentration gradient emanating from the posterior pole and extending into the presumptive abdomen. nos protein distribution is indistinguishable in wild type and pum mutant embryos, as assayed by filtered fluorescence-imaging.

nos protein is expressed in opposing gradients emanating from the anterior and posterior poles of the embryo in nosbcd.3UTR embryos. In nosbcd.3UTR embryos from osk1 mothers, a single gradient of nos expression emanates from the anterior pole.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GAL4-nos.NGT}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
cell | subset

Comment: a few cells dorsal to the yolk sac

Reporter: P{nos-(ms2).18}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{nos+1-(ms2).18}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{nos+2-(ms2).18}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{nos-myc.V}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\nos in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 25 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 247 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of nos
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of nos
Deletions and Duplications ( 10 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
cystoblast & plasma membrane
cystocyte & plasma membrane
dendritic arborising neuron & dendrite | somatic clone
dendritic arborising neuron & dendritic tree, with Scer\GAL48-123
dendritic arborising neuron & dendritic tree, with Scer\GAL4109(2)80
dendritic arborising neuron & dendritic tree, with Scer\GAL4477
female germline stem cell & plasma membrane
mushroom body & axon, with Scer\GAL47B
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
1  
7 of 15
No
Yes
1  
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (6)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190CHZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150JGQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0LP1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0E8R )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
suppressible
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
suppressible
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with pum and brat. Acts via the formation of a quaternary complex composed of pum, nos, brat and the 3'-UTR mRNA of hb. Interacts with cup. Binds RNA with no specificity.
(UniProt, P25724 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3R
Recombination map

3-66

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:19,157,238..19,160,202 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
91F4-91F4
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}cdi07013&P{lacW}nosj3B6 and P{PZ}l(3)0334603346
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
91F4-91F5
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
91F13-91F13
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (28)
Genomic Clones (18)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (56)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: nos l(3)j3B6

      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      smg protein interacts with AGO1 protein, and AGO1 protein interacts with and is required for the translational repression of the smg target, nos mRNA. The AGO1 protein/nos mRNA interaction does not require a miRNA, but does require msg protein.

      The repression of nos protein expression seen in the daughter cells of the germline stem cells in the female germarium is dependent on the presence of Sxl protein binding site in the nos 3' UTR.

      Regulation of nos protein expression in wild-type germaria depends on sequences in the 3'UTR of the transcript.

      nos is not required for the initial elaboration of dendritic branches in class IV da neurons, but is required at later stages of development to maintain dendrite complexity.

      nos mRNA localisation is dispensible for normal abdominal patterning in the embryo, providing that nos translation is properly modulated. In contrast, localisation of nos mRNA to the germ plasm, but not translational regulation, is essential for nos function in the developing germ cells.

      nos is essential for establishing and maintaining germline stem cells by preventing their precocious entry into oogenesis. nos is required cell autonomously for germline stem cell renewal (though not cyst differentiation). It is likely that nos represses the translation of differentiation factors in primoridal germ cells and germline stem cells. Zygotic nos is required at two distinct phases during pre-oogenic PGC development. The first pase is embryonic to first larval instar. The second phase is from the late third-instar to the pupal stage, that spans germline stenm cell establishment.

      nos and pum control the elaboration of high-order dendritic branches of class III and IV, but not class I and II, dendritic arborization neurons. nos and pum require each other to control dendrite morphogenesis, but hb is not required.

      Posterior localization of nos RNA initiates immediately upon nurse cell dumping and occurs by diffusion, entrapment and actin-dependent anchoring of RNA entering the oocyte. Long range movement of nos RNA can occur in the absence of oocyte streaming.

      The CCHC zinc finger motifs of nos, which coordinate two metal ions, are essential for all known functions of the nos protein. The "tail region" C-terminal to the zinc fingers is required for abdomen formation and germ cell migration, but not for oogenesis.

      The joint action of two RNA degradation pathways (a maternally encoded and a zygotic pathway) controls maternal transcript degradation and its timing in the early embryo. nos transcripts (relatively rare in abundance) are degraded almost exclusively by the maternal pathway.

      Localisation of nos RNA by components of the posteriorly localised germ plasm activates its translation by preventing interaction of nos RNA with translational repressors.

      In the female germ line nos is required for the functioning of stem cells. In the male germline, nos is required for the maintenance of stem cells.

      In mutant females, germline stem cells divide only a few times and then degenerate, due to loss of plasma membrane. Following germ cell loss, germaria carry on massive mitochondrial biogenesis activity. In mutant males, spermatogenesis is progressively affected and the males eventually become sterile.

      The developmental defects of nos- pole cells can be traced to the blastoderm stage. nos- pole cells, but not nos+ pole cells, are transcriptionally active in the blastoderm. The nos- pole cells also abnormally continue dividing, instead of becoming quiescent. Sxl is an important target for repression by nos in germ cells.

      The nos gene product forms a ternary complex with the RNA-binding domain of pum and the hb NRE (nos response element).

      Maternally deposited nos is essential for normal germ cell migration. Lack of zygotic activity of nos and pum has a dramatic effect on germline development of homozygous females. nos and pum act in the germline, affecting germline stem cell development. nos function lies in the differentiation of the stem cell progeny, the cystoblast. nos and pum may interact with different partners in the germline.

      Germ cells of embryos deriving from nos females do not show premature enhancer trap line gene expression, contrary to previous reports (FBrf0087514).

      In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.

      A Cys-Cys-His-Cys metal-binding domain in nos is essential for translational regulation. Each of two CCHC motifs are essential for nos activity. Each is capable of binding Zn(II) or Co(II) ions. nos binds to RNA with high affinity but cannot alone discriminate between mutant and wild-type NRE RNAs.

      A study of the mechanisms of nos-mediated translational repression indicates that nos and pum determine posterior morphology by promoting the deadenylation of maternal hb mRNA, thereby repressing its translation.

      The nos protein gradient in embryos is generated by translational regulation acting through the 184bp TCE (Translational Control Element) of the 3' UTR. The TCE is required to prevent the translation of unlocalized nos mRNA.

      Cis-acting sequences within the nos 3'UTR, both necessary and sufficient for localisation of RNA to the posterior of the embryo, occupy a 547 nucleotide region and contain sequences that are partially redundant in function.

      A 90 nucleotide region of the nos 3'UTR is identified that mediated translational repression of unlocalised nos RNA, this region is designated as the nos translational control element (TCE).

      nos is essential for germline formation, pole cells lacking nos activity fail to migrate into the gonads so do not become functional germ cells. In such pole cells, gene expression begins prematurely during pole cell migration. Premature activation of genes in these germline precursors may mean that these cells fail to develop normally.

      smg protein represses translation of unlocalized nos mRNA in the embryo. Two SREs (smg Response elements) map to the nos 3' UTR.

      nos is a conserved organiser of anterior-posterior patterning in the Diptera.

      Posterior localisation of the nos RNA is mediated by sequences within the 3' untranslated region and requires the function of eight posterior group genes. Unlocalised nos RNA is translationally repressed, this repression is mediated by the 3' untranslated region. Sequences that mediate translational repression overlap but are independent of those required for localisation.

      Variation of a microsatellite within the nos locus has been studied in North American populations of D.melanogaster.

      nos response elements (NRE) in the hb mRNA mediate nos repression of hb maternal transcript translation. pum protein is an NRE binding factor, pum recognises the NRE and recruits nos, the resulting complex is thought to inhibit some component of the translation machinery.

      A small part of the nos 3'UTR, called NTE1, inhibits translation of the nos product. Additional sequences in the 3'UTR are required for posterior group gene-dependent activation of nos translation.

      The nos gene product primarily recognises nanos response element (NRE) bound proteins, the pum gene product, and this complex interferes with translation of hb mRNA.

      Posterior localisation of nos RNA is mediated by sequences within the nos 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) and required the function of eight genes of the posterior group. Unlocalised nos RNA in embryos mutant for any of the posterior genes is stable and the embryos develop abdominal defects characteristic of nos mutants. Unlocalised nos RNA is translationally repressed, repression is mediated by the 3' UTR and can be alleviated by replacement of the UTR with heterologous UTR sequences or posterior localisation.

      nos is involved in the directed intercalation of cells during germ band extension.

      Comparisons of early development to that in other insects have revealed conservation of some aspects of development, as well as differences that may explain variations in early patterning events.

      A screen for suppressors of nos mutations identified alleles of E(z). E(z) is required to maintain the expression domain of kni and gt initiated by the maternal hb gradient. A small region of the kni promoter mediates regulation by E(z) and hb. Imprinting at the chromatin level may underlie the determination of anteroposterior polarity in the early embryo.

      Distribution of tud protein in mutant embryos has been studied.

      pumilio, expressed in the same pattern as nanos, is not required for either the expression of nanos protein or its transport to the presumptive abdomen.

      nanos 3' untranslated region is sufficient for nanos RNA localization. In experiments using bicoid sequences to mislocalise nanos, embryos with mirror image symmetry with double abdomens result if nanos is localised at both the anterior and posterior ends. Anteriorly localised nos suppresses translation of maternally supplied hunchback mRNA and thereby alters gap gene expression.

      Overexpression of osk leads to higher levels of osk mRNA that is both correctly localised to the posterior pole and unlocalised. Consequently nos is activated ectopically causing extensive shifts in body patterning. Germ cell formation is also affected, this can be enhanced by genetically decreasing nos activity.

      nos acts to prevent the expression of hb in the posterior half of the embryo.

      Expression from the Ecol\lacZ-Kr730 Kr-promoter fusion construct was monitored in nos- embryos to ensure the target site for nos mediated Kr expression has not been lost.

      gt may respond to the posterior morphogen nos in the embryo. nos represses maternal hb expression post-transcriptionally, so the effect of nos on gt expression may be mediated through hb.

      nos is critical for pole plasm formation and is required for the synthesis of the posterior signal in the nurse cells. The distribution of the signal to the presumptive posterior pole occurs after egg deposition. BicD,nos embryos suppress all abdominal development: the nos gene is critical for the normal and ectopic presence of the posterior signal.

      Mutations in maternal posterior class gene nos do not interact with RpII140wimp.

      nos gene product has been isolated and characterised.

      The degree of regulation mediated by the NREs in maternal hb mRNA depends on the level of nos.

      nos mutants exhibit deletion of the abdomen and pole plasm.

      Mature follicles are immunologically stained for asymmetric distribution of ecdysteroid-related antigen. During late oogenesis localisation of the antigen changes dramatically suggesting the antigen plays a role in early embryogenesis and, perhaps, in pattern formation.

      nos gene function is not required for pole cell formation.

      nos plays a role in polar granule formation.

      Double anterior structure induction in nos is more efficient by genetic methods, within nos mutant embryos, than removal of posterior cytoplasm.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer

      Lehmann.

      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 45 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Rfam - A collection of RNA sequence families of structural RNAs including non-coding RNA genes as well as cis-regulatory elements
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (13)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      l(3)07117
      l(3)j4B6
      nos
      (Dold et al., 2020, Kordyukova et al., 2020, Ote and Yamamoto, 2020, Senthilkumar et al., 2020, Asaoka et al., 2019, Drummond-Barbosa, 2019, Goldman et al., 2019, Hanyu-Nakamura et al., 2019, Kwasnieski et al., 2019, Molnar et al., 2019, Nelson et al., 2019, Park et al., 2019, Tegeder et al., 2019, Tiwari et al., 2019, Whittle and Extavour, 2019, Kang et al., 2018, Morita et al., 2018, Streichan et al., 2018, Sugimori et al., 2018, Wharton et al., 2018, Bence et al., 2017, Dufourt et al., 2017, Hannon et al., 2017, Ma et al., 2017, Rojas-Ríos et al., 2017, Tamayo et al., 2017, Vazquez-Pianzola et al., 2017, Bhogal et al., 2016, Elgart et al., 2016, Ji and Tulin, 2016, Na et al., 2016, Quinlan, 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Barckmann et al., 2015, Dahlberg et al., 2015, Flores et al., 2015, Little et al., 2015, Trcek et al., 2015, Zhang et al., 2015, Chen et al., 2014, Guilgur et al., 2014, Miles et al., 2014, Olesnicky et al., 2014, Toshima et al., 2014, Barckmann and Simonelig, 2013, Czech et al., 2013, Joly et al., 2013, Kondo and Ueda, 2013, Liu et al., 2013, Liu et al., 2013, Pinder and Smibert, 2013, Quinlan, 2013, Xin et al., 2013, Chau et al., 2012, Deshpande et al., 2012, McDermott et al., 2012, Meier et al., 2012, Miles et al., 2012, Morillo Prado et al., 2012, Olesnicky et al., 2012, Takahashi et al., 2012, Vazquez-Pianzola and Suter, 2012, Xia et al., 2012, Andrews et al., 2011, Becalska et al., 2011, Fernandez-Gonzalez and Zallen, 2011, Garcia et al., 2011, Jayanandanan et al., 2011, Jeske et al., 2011, Kim et al., 2011, Lerit and Gavis, 2011, Papatsenko and Levine, 2011, Sinsimer et al., 2011, Tiwari et al., 2011, Ali et al., 2010, Becalska and Gavis, 2010, Flaherty et al., 2010, Janic et al., 2010, Kim et al., 2010, Kitadate and Kobayashi, 2010, Rouget et al., 2010, Chen et al., 2009, Fernandez-Gonzalez et al., 2009, Li et al., 2009, Lim et al., 2009, Maezawa et al., 2009, Menon et al., 2009, Rangan et al., 2009, Rhiner et al., 2009, Sheng et al., 2009, Spirov et al., 2009, Tchuraev and Galimzyanov, 2009, Benoit et al., 2008, Brechbiel and Gavis, 2008, Brechbiel and Gavis, 2008, Cinnamon et al., 2008, Gamberi and Lasko, 2008, Gavis et al., 2008, Jain and Gavis, 2008, Jin et al., 2008, Leatherman and DiNardo, 2008, Lerit et al., 2008, Pope and Harris, 2008, Rangan et al., 2008, Snowflack and Gavis, 2008, Weil et al., 2008, Yatsu et al., 2008, Anne et al., 2007, Deshpande et al., 2007, Gamberi and Lasko, 2007, Georlette et al., 2007, Goldman et al., 2007, Jain and Gavis, 2007, Kadyrova et al., 2007, Kalifa and Gavis, 2007, Lecuyer et al., 2007, Maines et al., 2007, Minidorff et al., 2007, Minidorff et al., 2007, Sato et al., 2007, Sofola et al., 2007, Song et al., 2007, Tadros et al., 2007, Zhang et al., 2007, Arkov et al., 2006, Blankenship et al., 2006, Deshpande et al., 2006, Jeske et al., 2006, McGregor, 2006, Shapiro and Anderson, 2006, Shigenobu et al., 2006, Weil et al., 2006, Zaessinger et al., 2006, Laviolette et al., 2005, Sano et al., 2005, Wawersik and Van, 2005, Xie et al., 2005, Parisi et al., 2004, Sano et al., 2001, Smibert et al., 1999, Verrotti et al., 1999, Wang et al., 1994)
      Name Synonyms
      nanos
      (Schüpbach, 2019, Champer et al., 2018, Lefebvre and Lécuyer, 2018, Osman and Pek, 2018, Jewett et al., 2017, Stegmaier et al., 2016, Ferreira and Allard, 2015, Hales et al., 2015, Rodal et al., 2015, Shimaji et al., 2015, Singh, 2015, Trcek et al., 2015, Zhang et al., 2015, Cantera et al., 2014, Chen et al., 2014, Ghosh et al., 2014, Toshima et al., 2014, Cui et al., 2013, Kondo and Ueda, 2013, Laver et al., 2013, Li et al., 2013, McDermott and Davis, 2013, Quinlan, 2013, Seervai and Wessel, 2013, Conte et al., 2012, Deshpande et al., 2012, McCue and Slotkin, 2012, Miles et al., 2012, Eliazer et al., 2011, Jayanandanan et al., 2011, Jeske et al., 2011, Sinsimer et al., 2011, Ali et al., 2010, Fernandez-Sanchez et al., 2010, Janic et al., 2010, Liu et al., 2010, Martin et al., 2010, Yu et al., 2010, Li et al., 2009, Lim et al., 2009, Lu et al., 2009, Rangan et al., 2009, Rhiner et al., 2009, Sheng et al., 2009, Spirov et al., 2009, Brechbiel and Gavis, 2008, Cinnamon et al., 2008, Gavis et al., 2008, Ishihara and Shibata, 2008, Jain and Gavis, 2008, Lemke et al., 2008, Lerit et al., 2008, McGraw et al., 2008, Pope and Harris, 2008, Rangan et al., 2008, Sato et al., 2008, Scherp and Hasenstein, 2008, Weil et al., 2008, Yatsu et al., 2008, Andrews and Gavis, 2007, Anne et al., 2007, da Silva and Vincent, 2007, De Renzis et al., 2007, Deshpande et al., 2007, Ho and Gavis, 2007, Jain and Gavis, 2007, Kalifa and Gavis, 2007, Parrish et al., 2007, Blankenship et al., 2006, Jeske et al., 2006, Johnson and Donaldson, 2006, Kalifa et al., 2006, Nystul and Spradling, 2006, Seydoux and Braun, 2006, Shapiro and Anderson, 2006, Shigenobu et al., 2006, Zaessinger et al., 2006, Shav-Tal and Singer, 2005, Wawersik and Van, 2005, Gurunathan et al., 2004, Pavesi et al., 2004, Holloway and Harrison, 1999, Smibert et al., 1999, Colson, 1998.5.26)
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0010916
      • FBgn0011347
      • FBgn0011364
      • FBgn0026836
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (791)